New Hampshire

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(2013) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens; Grout, D.

(2013) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2012; Short, F.

(2012) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2011; Short, F.

(2012) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2010; Short, F.

(2012) Climate Ready Estuaries: COAST in Action, 2012 Projects from Maine and New Hampshire, Merrill, S., et. al.

(2012) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in Piscataqua Region Estuaries 2010 and 2011, Wood and Trowbridge, NH DES.

(2012) Crommet Creek Conservation Area Management Plan, Glode, J., et. al. Great Bay Resource Protection Partnership

(2011) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2011, Wood & Trowbridge

(2011) Restoring Salt Marsh and Functions to Newly Acquired Shoreline in North Mill Pond, Portsmouth; Burdick, D.

(2011) Invasive Species Management and Buffer Outreach on Goss Farm, Rye, NH; Rockingham County Conservation District

(2011) Restoring Native Oysters in Great Bay Estuary, NH (2011); Konisky, Grizzle & Ward.

(2011) Protecting a Portion of the Beaver Dam Health Conservation Focus Area and Initiating Health Conservation Financing in Berwick, Maine; Great Works Regional Land Trust.

(2011) Developing 2010 Impervious Surface Estimates for the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership Towns; Justice, D. and F. Rubin

(2011) Promoting Land Conservation in the Coastal Watershed through Local Faces, Special Places; Hart, B. Southeast Land Trust of New Hampshire

(2011) Development of guidelines for using bioextraction technologies to manage nutrients in New Hampshire's estuarine waters, Submitted to New Hampshire Sea Grant, Grizzle, F.
(*Supplemental report to Grizzle & Ward, 2011)


(2011) Working to Keep our Water Clean: PREP Project Highlights & Future Plans, PREP

(2011) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary in 2010

(2011) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens; Grout,D.

(2011) Experimental Quantification of Nutrient Bioextraction Potential of Oysters in Estuarine Waters of New Hampshire; Grizzle and Ward

(2010) Conservation Lands Audit and Online Inventory for Dover, NH; Kane and Ingraham

(2010) Lamprey River Watershed Education and Outreach; Genes, Lamprey River Watershed Association

(2010) Fertilizer and Stormwater Runoff Outreach in New Castle, NH; Anderson, NH Coastal Protection Partnership

(2010) Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Managment Plan EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

(2010) Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP); PREP

(2010) Watershed Survey and Pilot LCC Project to Identify and Reduce Soil Erosion Due to Stormwater Runoff into Milton Three Ponds; Turgeon, Three Ponds Protective Association

(2010) Conserving the Pawtuckaway River Focus Area and Kennard Hill Focus Area; Southeast Land Trust of New Hampshire

(2010) Eelgrass Distribution for the Great Bay Estuary for 2009; Short

(2010) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in Piscataqua Region Estuaries 2010; Wood & Trowbridge, NH DES.

(2010) Results of Gulwatch 2010 Samples; Jones

(2010) The Land Conservation Plan for Maine's Piscataqua Region Watersheds; Beginning with Habitat; Mount A to Sea; The Nature Conservancy; Wells Reserve; Southern Maine Regional Planning Commission

(2010) Town of Hampton, NH Stormwater Management; Natural Resources Outreach Coalition

(2010) Shoreland and Riparian Buffer Regulations for the Town of Raymond, NH; Southern New Hampshire Regional Planning Commission

(2010) Review of Erosion and Sediment Control Programs in the Piscataqua Region; FB Environmental

(2010) Shoreland Protection in Maine Communities; Southern Maine Regional Planning Commission

(2010) Piscataqua Region Environmental Planning Assessment (PREPA); Sowers

(2010) Stonehouse Pond Conservation; Caporossi

(2010) East Kingston Buffer Outreach, CTAP Program

(2010) Implementation of the Great Works River Non-Point Source Pollution Watershed Management Plan; Smith

(2010) Stewardship Plan for the 5 Corners Reserve, Lee, NH; Snyder

(2010) Stewardship Plan Isinglass River Conservation Reserve, Strafford, NH, Strafford Conservation Commission

(2010) Stewardship Plan for Garrity Reserve, Lee, NH; Snyder

(2010) Town of Brentwood Stormwater Management Project, CTAP Program

(2010) The Oyster River Culvert Analysis Project, PREP; Syntectic International; Antioch University New England; Climate Techniques; UNH Stormwater Center

(2010) A Citizen's Guide to Protecting East Kingston's Water Resources, PREP

(2010) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Grout

(2010) Optical Brightener Study of Spruce Creek, FB Environmental

(2010) Town of New Durham Stormwater Management & Erosion Control Project, CTAP Program

(2010) Town of Milton Shoreland Protection Project, CTAP Program

(2010) Town of Newington Stormwater Management Project, CTAP Program

(2010) Year 15 Work Plan, Hunter The Year 15 Work Plan identifies PREP’s priorities and projects planned for 2011.

(2010) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2009, Walsh T & Trowbridge P Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the Great Bay Estuary are a growing concern. The Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) calculates the nitrogen load from tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary using for its State of the Estuaries reports. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to collect representative data on nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment concentrations in tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary in 2009. The study design followed the tributary sampling design which was implemented by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services between 2001 and 2007 and by the University of New Hampshire in 2008, so as to provide comparable data to the previous loading estimates.

(2010) River Road New Castle Marsh Restoration Recommendations, RCCD *

(2009) Macroalgae and eelgrass mapping in Great Bay Estuary using AISA hyperspectral imagery, Pe’eri, et al A hyperspectral imagery survey was conducted by SpecTIR in August 2007 using an AISA Eagle sensor. The collected dataset was used to map eelgrass and nuisance macroalgae throughout the Great Bay Estuary. This report outlines the configured procedure for mapping the macroalgae and eelgrass beds using hyperspectral imagery.

(2009) Using Moored Arrays and Hyperspectral Aerial Imagery to Develop Nutrient Criteria for New Hampshire's Estuaries, Morrison, et al Increasing nitrogen concentrations and declining eelgrass beds in Great Bay are clear indicators of impending problems for the state?s estuaries. In 2007, the New Hampshire Estuaries Project received a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to collect water quality information including that from moored sensors and hyper-spectral imagery data of the Great Bay Estuary.

(2009) 2008 Great Bay Organic Nitrogen (PON & DON) and Light Extinction (PAR) Monitoring Program, Pennock The University of New Hampshire provides an analysis of particulate organic nitrogen (PON), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at existing sample sites in the New Hampshire seacoast region.

(2009) 2008 Great Bay Water Quality (Datasonde) Monitoring Program, Pennock. As part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS), the Great Bay System-Wide Monitoring Program (SWMP) produces in situ water quality data for four sites in and around Great Bay. In 2008, PREP funding was used to extend the SWMP program to include year-round in situ data for a station at the University of New Hampshire Coastal Marine Lab pier at the mouth of the Piscataqua River and summer data for a station in the Salmon Falls River. The in situ water quality monitoring program provides important data on basic water quality parameters in the Great Bay Estuary.

(2009) A Citizen's Guide to Protecting Greenland's Water Resources, PREP & Greenland Conservation Commission Through PREP Community Technical Assistance Program, the Greenland Conservation Commission created a newspaper that included articles on the Town's new Natural Resource Inventory, stormwater management techniques around the home, invasive plants, buffer landscaping, conservation subdivisions, Prime Wetlands, Winnicut River restoration, and wetland and riparian buffer protection. The Town received 2,100 copies of the newspaper and one was mailed to each household on September 30. An evaluation is planned in late October to gauge the publication's affect on residents' attitudes toward water resource protection.

(2009) A Citizen's Guide to Understanding Hampton Falls Land Use Regulations that Protect Critical Water Resources, PREP Implemented through the Community Technical Assistance Program, a buffer outreach project was conducted in Hampton Falls with a goal of communicating to residents the relevant town regulations that protect water resources. A large format, tri-fold brochure was developed that included information on the Town's wetland ordinance, aquifer protection district, vernal pools, Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act (CSPA), invasive plants, and recommended activities around the home to protect water resources. The title of the brochure was "A Citizen's Guide to Understanding Hampton Falls Land Use Regulations that Protect Critical Water Resources". The brochure also includes a large map of the town's aquifers, Prime Wetlands, CSPA buffer areas, and wetlands as determined by NRCS data. PREP designed and produced 1300 copies and through saturation mailing, delivered 1214 brochures with inserted evaluations to every Hampton Falls household.

(2009) Stakeholder Input and Meeting Summary Report, D.B. Truslow Associates This report chronicles the nine theme and two agency stakeholder meetings held in the first six months of 2009 as part of the effort to update the PREP Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP). The process and criteria for goal, objective and action selection is detailed.

(2009) Stormwater Management Database for the City of Dover, New Hampshire, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. & Ward dddled
(2009) Restoration of Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Habitat for Multiple Estuarine Species Benefits, Grizzle & Ward The overall goal of this project was to investigate restoration methods in Great Bay that positively affect multiple species. The focus was on those organisms (mainly macroalgae, invertebrates, and fish) that spend most of their time on oyster reefs—the resident species. A 0.5 hectare (1.25 acres) area was restored in August 2007 by constructing twelve mini-reefs (each ~6 m in diameter) in an area protected from harvest using spat-on-shell (“spat seeding”) from remotely set larvae. There was a consistent trend over time of higher oyster densities on the mini-reefs and on the natural reef within the protected area compared to the adjacent unprotected natural reef. At the end of the project period (1.8 years post-construction of the mini-reefs), total oyster densities in the overall restoration area were about 26% higher than the adjacent unprotected reef. The constructed mini-reefs also consistently had higher total densities and biomass of resident animals, which consisted mainly of invertebrates, compared to the other reef areas. A total of 15 species of invertebrates were collected from the mini-reefs compared to 10 and 11 species, respectively, from the natural reef in the restored area and the natural reef in the harvested area. The resident macroalgae community patterns over time indicated higher biomass on the mini-reefs and the protected natural reefs compared to the unprotected reef area on most sampling dates, though there was typically wide variability among replicates. Macroalgal taxonomic richness was similar in all three areas, and there was a total of fourteen species collected from the three areas. Overall, the project resulted in enhancement of oyster reef habitat within the 0.5 hectare restoration area, and characterized the substantial value of oyster reefs in providing habitat for a variety of plant and animal species.

(2009) Hampton-Seabrook Estuary Habitat Restoration Compendium, Eberhardt & Burdick The Hampton-Seabrook Estuary Restoration Compendium (HSERC) is a compilation of information on the historic and current distributions of salt marsh and sand dune habitats and diadromous fishes within the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary watershed. By evaluating habitat loss and changes in land use over time, restoration opportunities are identified within the watershed. Restoration opportunities are not prioritized in order to allow the goals and objectives of each restoration practitioner to govern priority projects; however, in accordance with an ecosystem-based approach to restoration, areas containing multi-habitat restoration opportunities are considered to be of the highest priority. Additionally, restoration should ensure processes critical for the support of the restored components are maintained or reestablished. Coastal systems are dynamic. An ecosystem-based approach requires the understanding that some natural and human-caused changes are inevitable, and therefore, an adaptive and flexible approach to managing estuarine and watershed resources as well as specific restoration projects is needed for success. The HSERC contaions maps detailing change in sand dune and salt marsh extent over time, the current and historic distribution of 7 target diadromous fish species, and restoration opportunities within the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary and watershed.



(2009) Environmental Indicator Report, Trowbridge This PREP technical data report illustrates the status and trends of 42 environmental indicators tracked by PREP that represent a wide range of topics from water quality to biological resources to land use and conservation. Most indicators track New Hampshire data only, although the report includes information on nitrogen loading, protected conservation lands, and impervious surface coverage from both New Hampshire and Maine portions of the Great Bay Estuary watershed. Many of the water quality indicators also include data from tidal waters in Maine. Over twenty indicators from this report will be featured in the State of the Estuaries Report, due to be published in October, 2009.

(2009) Year 14 Work Plan , Hunter The Year 14 Work Plan identifies PREP’s priorities and projects planned for 2010. In 2010, PREP will begin implementation of its new Management Plan, which is currently being developed. Activities to be implemented using EPA National Estuary Program funds are described and the overall budget is presented. In addition the Work Plan reports on recent accomplishments and projects that occurred between May 1, 2008 and April 30, 2009 to implement the PREP Management Plan.

(2009) New Hampshire Estuaries Probabilistic Monitoring Program in 2008 , Trowbridge This report documents the data collected for the National Coastal Assessment in New Hampshire's estuarine waters during the 2008 field season. The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the University of New Hampshire (UNH) partnered on this project. EPA provided the study design and field protocols. UNH collected the samples and field data at designated sites in the estuary. NHDES performed the quality assurance checks. Funding for this sampling effort was provided by the PREP, NHDES, and the New Hampshire Coastal Program.

(2009) Town of Sandown Wetland Evaluation Report , West Through PREP's Community Technical Assistance Program, West Environmental, Inc. (WEI) prepared this report to document the evaluation of 36 wetlands within the Town of Sandown, New Hampshire. The field work for this evaluation was conducted from February to July 2008 and included the verification of aerial photo interpreted wetland boundaries and functional assessments. The purpose of this wetland evaluation was to gain a better understanding of the wetland resources within the Town of Sandown and to identify wetlands that qualify for Prime Wetland Designation.

(2009) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary for 2008 , Short Eelgrass in the Great Bay Estuary in 2008 was found only in the Great Bay and Portsmouth Harbor. In 2008 there was a continued loss of eelgrass biomass in the Estuary. Virtually all the eelgrass in Little Bay and the Piscataqua River has died. Eelgrass in Great Bay itself experienced an increase in distribution from 2007 to 2008, primarily from the re-seeding of bare areas that had been de-vegetated by nuisance algae in previous years. However, Great Bay showed a decrease in eelgrass biomass in 2008. Portsmouth and Little Harbors experienced a slight decrease in both distribution and cover in 2008 with the offshore beds in Portsmouth Harbor showing the greatest loss. Despite the slight increase in eelgrass distribution in Great Bay Estuary due to the increased seed recruitment in Great Bay, the loss of percent cover and biomass in Great Bay and in Portsmouth Harbor again this year (2007 – 2008) indicates the continuing adverse water quality conditions in the Estuary. Overall, the Estuary has lost 66% of its eelgrass biomass since 1996.

(2008) Total Nitrogen Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2008 , Trowbridge This report summarizes the NHEP effluent sampling program for nitrogen at eight wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) in 2008. Facilities sampled were in Kittery , Berwick, Newmarket, Somersworth , Durham, Rochester, Exeter, and Dover. The Water Quality Analysis Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire processed the samples and the results, including daily average flow, total nitrogen concentrations, total dissolved nitrogen concentrations, and nitrogen loads for each WWTF are presented.

(2009) Analysis of hyperspectral imagery for macroalgae and eelgrass mapping Pe'eri This report outlines the configured procedure for mapping the macroalgae and eelgrass beds using hyperspectral imagery. No ground truth measurements of eelgrass or macroalgae were collected as part of this project, although eelgrass ground truth data was collected as part of a separate project. Guidance from eelgrass and macroalgae experts was used for identifying training sets and evaluating the classification results. The results produced a comprehensive eelgrass and macroalgae map of the estuary. Three recommendations are suggested following the experience gained in this study: conducting ground truth measurements at the time of the HS survey, acquiring the current DEM model of Great Bay Estuary, and examining additional HS datasets with expert eelgrass and macroalgae guidance. These three issues can improve the classification results and allow more advanced applications, such as identification of macroalgae types. Final report unavailable online - pending academic publication. For more information, contact Shachak Pe’eri at shachak@ccom.unh.edu

(2009) A Citizen's Guide to Protecting Sandown's Wetlands and Water Resources, Town of Sandown Every household in Sandown (2267) received an 8-page newspaper designed primarily to increase awareness and protection of wetland and riparian buffers in the town to protect water quality. The town also received an electronic version to post on the town website and about 600 copies of the newspaper to distribute to new residents and at special events. The Conservation Commission initiated this project by applying to the PREP Community Technical Assistance Program. Topics of the outreach piece include impervious surface cover in Sandown, wetland and riparian buffer management, the Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act, Prime Wetlands, and vernal pool identification and protection. In addition to community members, other authors contributed articles to the piece including staff from PREP, UNH Cooperative Extension, and NHDES Watershed Management Bureau.

(2009) Conservation Easement Stewardship and Monitoring and Assessment of Newfields Conservation Lands, Snyder, E Through PREP’s Community Technical Assistance Program, Ibis Wildlife Consulting worked with the Newfields Conservation Commission to improve easement stewardship practices and conduct an inventory of conservation lands to assist with future land protection activities. The consultant prepared seven monitoring plans and completed two baseline documentation reports for town-held conservation easements. The consultant also prepared annual monitoring reports for five conservation easements. In addition, the consultant completed an inventory of existing conservation lands in town, totaling nearly 1,200 acres.

(2009) Eelgrass Mapping Great Bay Estuary for 1981, Short, F Eelgrass meadow polygons for 1981 were mapped from USDA black-and-white aerial photographs, on file at the Strafford County and Rockingham County (NH) offices. The mapping shows extensive eelgrass distribution throughout the Great Bay Estuary, except in areas where the photography was not adequate to interpret the images (primarily Portsmouth Harbor, the Oyster River, and the upper Bellamy River). As the maps shows, and as verified by the NH Fish and Game maps of the same time frame (Nelson, 1981), there was much more eelgrass in Little Bay and the Piscataqua River in 1981 than 2007, the most recent mapping date for the estuary. The 1981 eelgrass distribution and cover map for the Great Bay Estuary represents an “earliest available” comprehensive map of the resource, as no earlier photography has been found with adequate tidal conditions to allow eelgrass mapping.

(2009) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2008, Trowbridge, P Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the Great Bay Estuary are a growing concern. In the 2006 State of the Estuaries report (NHEP, 2006), the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (now called the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership or PREP) calculated the nitrogen load from tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary using data collected by the NH Department of Environmental Services. PREP needs to update this indicator for the 2009 State of the Estuaries report. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to collect representative data on nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment concentrations in tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary in 2008. The study design followed the tributary sampling design which was implemented by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services between 2001 and 2007 so as to provide comparable data to the previous loading estimates.

(2009) PREP Coastal Watershed Land Protection Transaction Grants 2008 Funding Round, Sowers, D In 2008, fourteen projects received PREP funds to support transaction costs associated with permanent land conservation projects in the New Hampshire coastal watershed. A maximum of $3,000 was granted to each project, with a single organization eligible to receive up to three separate awards. Funds were granted to eight different organizations, all of which were land trusts or town Conservation Commissions. Projects were completed in nine different towns, with the total acreage of land permanently protected reported at 984 acres. Nine of the fourteen projects were located in priority Conservation Focus Areas identified in The Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire's Coastal Watersheds (Zankel et al., 2006). Twelve of the fourteen projects protected stream or river shoreland habitat, with a total estimated distance of 23,510’ (4.45 miles) of shoreland receiving permanent protection. The majority of projects utilized conservation easements as the primary land protection mechanism and involved significant financial compensation to the landowner. PREP invested a total of $40,880 towards the transaction costs associated with the 14 projects, which was matched by $94,789 worth of cash and in-kind contributions by grant recipients. The total real market value of the land permanently protected through the work of project partners is estimated to be $6.56 million. This grant program provides important financial support that helps build and maintain the capacity of local governments and non-profits to complete land protection projects in the PREP watershed. The program also helps achieve PREP’s goal of permanently protecting 15 percent of the watershed by 2010. The program will continue with a new funding round and some minor administrative changes in 2009.

(2009) PREP Year in Review, PREP This report includes summaries of 2008 Community Technical Assistance Program, Local Grants Program, and Land Transaction Grant Program. It also describes the PREP work to set numeric limits for nutrients entering Great Bay. Research summaries of oyster reef mapping in Maine, Climate Ready Estuaries culvert study, and the development of impervious surface estimates for southern York County are featured. Copies of this 16-page booklet were sent to all state and federal legislators representing the PREP focus area and to everyone in Maine on the PREP mailing list.

(2009) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Grout, D Two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) are known to be present in Great Bay oysters. With funds provided by the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) in 2008, the Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, (NHF&G) continued to assess the presence and intensity of both disease conditions in oysters from the major beds within the Great Bay estuarine system. Oyster tests in 2008 showed continued presence of MSX in Great Bay with infection prevalence levels similar to those recorded over the past eight years. Dermo was seen for the seventh successive year after a period 1997 to 2002 when it was found in oysters only at very low prevalence. Also present but of unknown pathogenicity are ciliate produced xenomas in gill tissue.

(2009) Town of Barrington Natural Resources Inventory: A Reference, Fischer, M Barrington is very fortunate to have an abundance and wide variety of natural resources. Given the Town’s location in the fast-growing seacoast region of New Hampshire, development can be expected to place increasing pressures on the Town and its natural resource base. As described throughout this Natural Resources Inventory, there are many natural resources, special habitats and ecosystems that are valuable and worthy of further consideration for further study, preservation and/or active management. Current zoning ordinances and land use regulations provide some protections. However, the Town can take several additional approaches to maintain and protect its rural character, and its special resources for the benefit of current residents, visitors, wildlife, and future generations.

(2008) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2007; Short, F


(2008) Total Nitrogen Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2008 , Trowbridge descript



(2008) 2007 Great Bay Organic Nitrogen and Light Extinction Monitoring Program, Pennock, J UNH Jackson Estuarine Lab conducted organic nutrient monitoring (particulate organic nitrogen, or PON, and dissolved organic nitrogen, or DON) and light availability monitoring (measured as photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR) in 2007 at locations throughout the Great Bay Estuary. When combined with the inorganic nutrient measurements taken as part of the Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve System-wide Monitoring Program, total nitrogen in the system can be calculated. Sample collection and analysis followed the procedures specified in the approve Quality Assurance Project Plan.

(2008) 2007 Great Bay Water Quality (DataSonde) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The University of New Hampshire Jackson Estuarine Lab, with NHEP funding, completed this project with the objective to: (1) support in situ water quality monitoring for the April to December 2007 sampling season at the Lamprey River (LR), Squamscott River (SQ), Oyster River (OR), Great Bay (GB) and Coastal Marine Lab (CML) sites; and (2) fund the deployment of in situ water quality monitoring at the Salmon Falls (SF) for July, August and September 2007.

(2008) 2008 VIP Tours of Great Bay, Kellam, D NHEP staff conducted two “V.I.P. Great Bay Estuary Tours for Municipal Land Use Officials” for the fifth consecutive year on board the UNH Gulf Challenger on Wednesday, August 20 and Saturday, September 13, 2008. The tours were promoted in NHEP Estuaries Update and online registration began on July 17, 2008. Announcements were sent to municipal planning officials (MPO) via the NHEP email list for planning board and conservation commission members, about 375 addresses (see attachment) Registration was managed primarily using a registration form on www.SurveyMonkey.com and was closed for both tours once 35 passengers were registered. One person was placed on a waitlist for the Saturday tour. The tours were scheduled to last three and a half hours. The boat departed from the new University of New Hampshire (UNH) Pier in New Castle, NH, stopped at the UNH Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at Adam’s Point, and returned to the UNH Pier. The group disembarked at JEL to hear two presentations and to walk around. Participants were given announcements about the NHEP 2009 Local Grant RFP and NHEP Land Transaction Grant Program. Copies of NHEP 2006 State of the Estuaries Report and the Water Pollution Identification and Reporting Guide were also distributed. UNH Marine Program granted a 40% educational discount for the Gulf Challenger charter. The cost of both tours was $690 after the discount. Registration was managed through SurveyMonkey.com and the NHEP subscribed to the service for three months, totaling $59.85. Food, coffee, orange juice, and water were provided

(2008) Ambient Rivers Monitoring in the Great Bay Estuary Watershed 2007, NHDES The Department of Environmental Services (DES) received funding from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) to conduct monitoring activities in 2007. The activities described in this report were led by the DES Watershed Assistance Section and involved water monitoring at the head-of-tide in ten tidal tributaries. Other DES staff conducted laboratory analyses. These monitoring activities were completed with the overall purpose of improving the understanding of water quality trends and nitrogen loads from the watershed. DES completed all tasks as planned. This report includes the sample collection information, field and laboratory data, and quality assurance information. Data summaries and interpretations will come at a later time in other DES and NHEP publications.

(2008) Community Land Conservation in the Coastal Watershed, Hart, B Southeast Land Trust of New Hampshire hired a Community Land Protection Specialist (Specialist) to expand the region’s capacity to implement and complete conservation efforts within the coastal watershed, and specifically within the Lamprey River and Exeter River corridors. From January 2007 through June 30, 2008, the Specialist completed the following tasks: (1) Completed six land conservation transactions totalling 236 acres (1,200 feet of frontage on the Lamprey River and more than 800 feet of frontage on the Exeter River);(2) Assisted with the completion of six other land conservation transactions totaling 213 acres (8,000 feet of frontage on the Lamprey River, 300 feet on the Taylor River, and a significant salt marsh in Rye); 3) Conducted personal outreach to 45 landowners along the Lamprey River, resulting in follow-up interest among at least six landowners, (4) organized a land protection workshop attended by 23 landowners; (5) assisted four Brentwood landowners to complete applications to the USDA Wetlands Reserve Program; (6) coordinated one estate planning and conservation options workshop in June 2007 in Epping that was attended by 20 landowners; and (7) sent an introductory mailing and conducted follow up calls to priority landowners within the Lamprey River watershed.

(2008) Conserve the Minton Property Flyer, Town of Sandown An 11 x17 flyer was developed, printed, and mailed to all residences in Sandown. The flyer included a town map, discussion of the value of open space, and the cost of growth to the town. The flyer called for voters to approve Article 2 on the town ballot to purchase the Minton Property($1,000,000 bond). Article 2 was approved by 5 votes.

(2008) Danville Town Forest Stewardship Plan, Snyder, E. Through the NHEP’s Community Technical Assistance Program, Ibis Wildlife Consulting worked with a number of Danville boards and committees to develop a Stewardship Plan for the 420+ acre town forest that includes the headwaters of the Exeter River. The plan indentifies the ecological features, surrounding land use, site history and cultural resources, and current conditions. It outlines a number of stewardship goals to maintain and protect the biological diversity, ecosystem integrity, and other qualities of the site. Specific recommendations were developed based on each of the stewardship goals, taking into account the existing conditions, site capabilities, specific stewardship issues, and feasibility and opportunity to achieve the desired outcomes.

(2008) Developing 1990, 2000, and 2005 Impervious Surface Estimates for Southern York County, Maine, Justice, D & Rubin, F Estimates of impervious surface acreage in 1990, 2000, and 2005 were generated for an 11-town region in York County, Maine, covered by the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP). The project extended previous work done in New Hampshire, relying on comparable satellite-based data sources and image processing methodologies. As a result, standardized impervious surface estimates are now available for the entirety of the PREP region. The impervious surface estimates were derived by applying both traditional and subpixel classification techniques to 30-meter Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite image data. The classifications indicated that 3.3% (9,098 acres) of the study area was impervious in 1990, with increases to 5.3 % (14,646 acres) in 2000 and 6.3% (17,394 acres) in 2005. At the subwatershed level, the Portsmouth Harbor subwatershed recorded the highest percentage of impervious surface acreage in 1990, 2000, and 2005 with 7.8% coverage (1,283 acres), 12.3% coverage (2,009 acres), and 14.5% coverage (2,380 acres) respectively.

(2008) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary for 2006, Short, F UNH mapped the distribution of eelgrass in the Great Bay Estuary using 2006 imagery. Eelgrass in Great Bay itself decreased substantially (43%) between 2005 and 2006, due to losses in both biomass and distribution. Little Bay and the Piscataqua River showed greater change (loss of 40%) between 2005 and 2006 than previously, with very low levels of eelgrass compared to historical distributions and the large beds of ruppia in the Bellamy, Oyster and upper Piscataqua Rivers also diminished. The Portsmouth Harbor – Little Harbor area experienced a decrease in eelgrass abundance (14%) between 2005 and 2006. All of the Great Bay Estuary has decreased eelgrass beds compared to historic distributions. In the decade from 1996 to 2006, the Great Bay Estuary has lost almost half its eelgrass.

(2008) Evaluation of NHEP Outreach: A Survey of Planning Boards and Conservation Commissions, UNH Survey Center The New Hampshire Estuaries Project Survey was conducted by the University of New Hampshire Survey Center from November 2007 to February 2008. The major purposes of this survey were to investigate awareness of the role of the NHEP in the target areas, as well as investigating whether information from the NHEP is used and trusted. Overall, there is moderate familiarity of the NHEP, with 56% of respondents expressing some level of familiarity with the Project (10% very familiar, 46% somewhat familiar), and 43% of respondents expressing unfamiliarity with the Project (19% somewhat unfamiliar, 18% very unfamiliar, 6% don’t know). Respondents who have been a member of a board for over 10 years are much more likely to have familiarity of the NHEP (24% are very familiar and 56% are somewhat familiar). Awareness of the NHEP Management Plan is fairly low with 29% of respondents expressing some level of familiarity with the Plan. Overall, respondents feel the NHEP has been effective in assisting their community, with 44% expressing some level of effectiveness. A majority of respondents (59%) have seen the 2006 State of the Estuaries report. Overall, survey respondents expressed confidence in the NHEP’s knowledge and authority regarding the status of New Hampshire’s estuaries with 68% of respondents reporting to have some degree of confidence. A plurality (47%) of respondents prefer e-mail communications, 29 percent prefer mail to their chair and then passed on to them, 23 percent prefer it is mailed to their home, and 1 percent gave some other method.

(2008) Guide to Understand Brentwood's Land Use Regulations The Protect Critical Water Resources, Town of Brentwood Through the Community Technical Assistance Program, the NHEP and the Brentwood Conservation Commission worked closely over the summer to create a brochure that explains the recent adoption of a Prime Wetlands ordinance in town as well as other land use regulations including Brentwood's regulations addressing shoreland, wetlands, and aquifer protection. The publication also includes a land use quiz for residents, a guide to landscaping practices that protect water quality, and a large map of Brentwood that clearly indicates Prime Wetlands, aquifers, and hydric soils. UNH Printing Services produced 2,000 copies of the brochure and each residence in Brentwood will receive a brochure in the mail. The remaining 500 copies will be distributed by the Conservation Commission to new residents.

(2008) Hampton-Seabrook Estuary Restoration Compendium, Burdick, D & Eberhart, A The Hampton-Seabrook Estuary Restoration Compendium (HSERC) is a compilation of information on the historic and current distributions of salt marsh and sand dune habitats and diadromous fishes within the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary watershed. By evaluating habitat loss and changes in land use over time, restoration opportunities are identified within the watershed. Restoration opportunities are not prioritized in order to allow the goals and objectives of each restoration practitioner to govern priority projects; however, in accordance with an ecosystem-based approach to restoration, areas containing multi-habitat restoration opportunities are considered to be of the highest priority. Additionally, restoration should ensure processes critical for the support of the restored components are maintained or reestablished. Coastal systems are dynamic. An ecosystem-based approach requires the understanding that some natural and human-caused changes are inevitable, and therefore, an adaptive and flexible approach to managing estuarine and watershed resources as well as specific restoration projects is needed for success. The HSERC contaions maps detailing change in sand dune and salt marsh extent over time, the current and historic distribution of 7 target diadromous fish species, and restoration opportunities within the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary and watershed.

(2008) Hampton Falls' Prime Wetlands Designation, West, M West environmental reviewed previous wetland inventory and completed document preparation for the Hampton Falls prime wetland designation (PWD) that included ten of the largest (>40 acres), wetlands in town. Conservation Commission outreach included three newsletter articles, a PWD map overlayed onto the tax map and placed in Town Hall, the library and on the Town web site, posters and bookmarks placed in the library, a flyer sent to every household and sponsorship of well-attended public hearings.

(2008) Incidence and Timing of Low Dissolved Oxygen Events in the Squamscott River: 2005-07, Jones, S The goal of this study was to provide information that would help predict when conditions for low dissolved oxygen (DO) are most likely to occur. Data from the Squamscott River datasonde were analyzed to determine when low DO episodes occurred during 2005-07. The main questions being addressed were whether criteria chosen for the timing of field efforts conducted by Jones (2007) were accurate, and whether 2005 was an unusual year compared to previous and ensuing years relative to overall conditions conducive to the onset and incidence of low DO episodes. The study found the warm season time period of July-September to be the time of year when low DO events were most frequent and pervasive. In comparisons between each year from 2005 to 2007, 2005 had less frequent and pervasive low DO events compared to 2006 and 2007. Relative to tidal cycle conditions, low DO conditions were most likely to occur during neap tide conditions, as indicated by the least shallow depth readings for the datasonde. The most frequently observed time of day when either a low DO event was initiated or the lowest DO reading was recorded was in the morning, especially before 8:00 AM.

(2008) Isinglass River Conservation Corridor Project, Kern, D Bear-Paw Regional implemented the Isinglass River Conservation Corridor Project including completing transaction costs associated with the project that protected high-value conservation land along the Isinglass River and in other areas of the watershed in Strafford, New Hampshire. The $2.9 million project was a collaboration of Bear-Paw, the Trust for Public Land (TPL), and the Town of Strafford that protected five properties and 868 acres of forest, over one mile of road frontage, more than three miles of frontage on streams and rivers (including more than 1½ miles on the Isinglass River), several ponds, and two historic mill sites. All of these properties are in areas that have been identified as important to protect in the Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire’s Coastal Watersheds, a Conservation Plan produced by Bear-Paw Regional Greenways, the New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan. The project was primarily funded by a $1.3 million federal Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program (CELCP) grant that TPL secured for the purchase of a 286-acre property on the Isinglass River as well as the value of donations of land and/or conservation easements on four other properties covering 582 acres that provided most of the 1:1 match needed for the CELCP grant. The Town of Strafford’s Conservation Fund and two foundations provided additonal funding for the project.

(2008) NHEP Monitoring Plan - Version 5, July 2008, Trowbridge, P The Monitoring Plan describes the methods and data for the comprehensive suite of indicators used to assess if the goals and objectives of the Management Plan being met. The previous version of NHEP Monitoring Plan (version 4) was published in 2004. In 2005 and 2006, the NHEP produced a series of indicator reports for the 2006 State of the Estuaries report. Recommended changes to the Monitoring Plan from the indicator reports were reviewed by the Technical Advisory Committee on September 27, 2006. The NHEP proposed additional changes to the Monitoring Plan at a meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee on June 10, 2008. The major change between version 4 and version 5 of the Monitoring Plan is the elimination of indicators that have not been used for management decisions but require significant staff resources to compile. Also, the methodologies for several indicators were changed to more accurately reflect how these indicators are calculated.

(2008) NHEP Year 13 Work Plan, Hunter, J This Work Plan represents the thirteenth year of NHEP activities and is developed with input from NHEP’s four project teams. The Plan describes recent accomplishments and projects to be undertaken beginning in 2009 to implement the NHEP Management Plan. Also included are a list of ongoing projects, a summary of meetings and milestones from the last year, relevance of activities to the Clean Water Act programs, and the overall budget.

(2008) Northwood Stomwater Technologies and Town of Northwood Buffer Ordinance, SRPC & TTG Report I - The Town of Northwood Water Resources Sub-Committee, understanding the importance of adequate stormwater management, and wishing to address these issues on a local level, instituted this report explains the need for proactively dealing with stormwater issues, and describe the various technologies currently available to address these needs. One of the major thrusts of this report is to identify stormwater management practices suitable for a rural/suburban community such as Northwood. Report II - The Town of Northwood Planning Board and the Water Resources Subcommittee created a development ordinance to protect riparian and shoreland areas adjacent to streams, rivers, lakes and ponds in the town. If implemented by the town, the proposed shoreland protection ordinance would protect two public drinking water supplies and the headwater areas of five regional watersheds, two of which are designated rivers under the NH Rivers Management and Protection Program (Isinglass and Lamprey Rivers) and one is federally designated Wild and Scenic River (Lamprey River).

(2008) Portsmouth Vernal Pool Inventory, West, M Through the NHEP Community Technical Assistance Program, West Environmental, Inc. conducted a city-wide vernal pool inventory to locate, document and map vernal pools in Portsmouth. This effort was coordinated with the Portsmouth Planning Department and Conservation Commission. Currently the City’s wetland regulations exempt wetlands less than 5,000 square feet from the local 100 foot buffer zone. This study identified smaller wetlands which have the potential to provide vernal pool habitat. A field workshop was held for the Conservation Commission members to provide hands-on training in vernal pool ecology. Based on the results of this study and the recent revisions to the NHDES Wetlands Bureau regulations which added rules for vernal pool protection, the Portsmouth Conservation Commission has recommended a change to the Article 8 - Environmental Protection Standards of the City of Portsmouth to include vernal pool identification and protection with a 100 foot buffer.

(2008) Prime Wetland Designation Activities: 2005-2008, Kellam, D From 2005 to 2008, the NHEP supported seven Prime Wetlands designation projects in the Seacoast. In 2008, warrent articles to adopt Prime Wetlands were on the town ballot in the communities of Fremont, Hampton Falls, Brentwood, and Newfields. Three of the four warrents were approved. This report utilizes interviews with Conservation Commission Chairs and key conservation professionals to document the activiites leading up to the town vote in each of these towns. NHEP expenditures and outreach materials used by the communities are also included. The report concludes with reccomendations for other communities preparing Prime Wetland designations.

(2008) Protecting Shoreland and Riparian Buffers Workshop (2007), Hunter, J The NHEP, in partnership with a number of other organizations and agencies, developed and implemented a workshop on protecting riparian and shoreland buffers. The workshop was composed of four related sessions designed to provide information and tools to encourage greater municipal regulatory protections for buffers. The workshop was held three times in October and November 2007 and attended by 75 people, primarily planning board and conservation commission members. Workshop materials and evaluations are included in the report.

(2008) Seasonal Appearance and Monitoring of Invasive Species in the Great Bay Estuarine System, Harris, L & Dijkstra, J UNH researchers characterize invasive species in the Great Bay Estuary. The report includes a synthesis of existing data on invasive species in the area and the results of a long-term comparative succession panel study that compared findings from a 2003 to 2006 study period and data from a similar study conducted from 1979 to 1982. The report also presents data conducted during a monitoring effort in the Great Bay Estuary to document invasive species and their predators.

(2008) Shellfish Spotlight: 2008, NHEP PREP produced 3,000 copies of a brochure that included a summary of New Hampshire clam and oyster populations, as well as articles on oyster reef restoration, invasive Chinese mitten crab, clam neoplasia, and ride tide. The large format, tri-fold brochure was mailed to all shellfish license holders who allowed additional mailings to be sent to their homes (1388), as well as all coastal license vendors, NHEP team members, and key distribution areas such as Seacoast Science Center and NH Fish and Game office. This publication addresses outreach activities of four Action Plans from the NHEP Management Plan.

(2008) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuaries 2006, Trowbridge, P In 2006, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services collected samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue from five locations in the Great Bay Estuary and Hampton-Seabrook Estuary. The work was conducted as part of the annual Gulfwatch Program. Conducted by a committee of Canadian and US government and university scientists, the Gulfwatch Program examines the effects of decades of development and industrialization on the water quality of the Gulf as it relates to human health as well as its impact on other marine organisms. Gulfwatch scientists collect blue mussels at over 60 US and Canadian sites Gulf-wide, and analyze the organisms’ tissue for potentially harmful levels and concentrations of toxins including heavy metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The data for mussel tissue samples from New Hampshire in 2006 were reviewed and audited with quality assurance tests. The final laboratory results for the year are provided in the report.

(2008) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuaries, 2007, Trowbridge, P During the 2007 Gulfwatch sampling season, mussels were collected at seven sampling locations in New Hampshire. The Gulf of Maine Council covered the costs for analyzing mussel tissue samples from five stations. The NHEP covered the costs for analyzing the mussel samples at the remaining two stations. In addition the 2007 sampling program included analysis of clam and oyster samples, with funding from the NHDES Shellfish Program.

(2008) Summary Report for Round 1 of the Community Technical Assistance Program, Hunter, J The NHEP initiated its Community Technical Assistance Program (CTAP) in 2005 to assist communities in implementing natural resource protection projects that they otherwise may not have the capacity or expertise to implement. Eleven communities applied for and received assistance in the areas of land conservation planning, wetlands/stream buffer protection, and stormwater management. Projects results include: • Wetlands evaluations conducted in two communities and assistance provided for designating 53 wetlands as prime wetlands in those two communities • Development of five new or revised ordinances/regulations improving wetlands protection, stream buffer protections, and/or stormwater management • Conservation lands inventories, baseline documentation, and development of monitoring plans for town-held easements and/or stewardship plans for town-owned conservation lands in five communities • Development of conservation/open space plans in two communities Individual project summaries are provided.

(2008) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, NHFG Two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) are known to be present in Great Bay oysters. With funds provided by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP), the Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, (NHF&G) continues to assess the presence and intensity of both disease conditions in oysters from the major beds, some open for harvest, within the Great Bay estuarine system. Histological examination of Great Bay oysters has also revealed other endoparasites.

(2008) Thanks for the maps and reports. What do we do with them?, El Kouarti, J This report describes the efforts of Moose Mountains Regional Greenways (MMRG) personnel to assist local communities in establishing specific local priorities for land protection. MMRG staff conducted a total 32 meetings with conservation commissions, organized three regional workshops, created three sets of maps, conducted three field events, gave three presentations at lake association meetings, created six display booths and issued 12 press releases.

(2008) Town of Chester Stormwater Management Project, Arcieri, B Through the NHEP's Community Technical Assistance Program, Great Bay Environmental Consulting worked with the Town of Chester Planning Board to improve regulatory approaches to stormwater management. The project was conducted in two phases: Phase I involved an inventory and assessment of existing regulations for their treatment of stormwater management, with recommendations for an approach to improve stormwater management in the town. The Planning Board opted to focus on specific changes to existing subdivision and site planning regulations, so Phase II of the project involved the development of specific recommendations for those regulations.

(2008) UNH Monitoring Activities that Support the National Coastal Assessment in 2007, Trowbridge, P The National Coastal Assessment is an Environmental Protection Agency program to monitor the health of the nation’s estuaries using nationally standardized methods and a probabilistic sampling design. Dedicated EPA funding for the National Coastal Assessment ceased after 2006. Therefore, the NH Department of Environmental Services and the New Hampshire Estuaries Project contributed funds to continue a portion of the National Coastal Assessment in 2007. Water quality measurements were successfully made during 2007 at 25 randomly located stations throughout the Great Bay Estuary and Hampton-Seabrook Harbor. These data will be combined with samples collected in 2006 for probabilistic assessments of estuarine water quality during the 2006-2007 period in the NHEP Water Quality Indicators Report in 2009.

(2008) Using Moored Arrays & Hyperspectral Aerial Imagery to Develop Nutrient Criteria for NH’s Estuaries, Morrison, R Data from the Great Bay Coastal Buoy, part of the regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), were used to derive a multivariate model of water clarity with phytoplankton, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), and non-algal particles. Non-algal particles include both inorganic and organic matter. Most of the temporal variability in the diffuse attenuation coefficient of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) was associated with non-algal particles. However, on a mean daily basis non-algal particles and CDOM contributed a similar fraction (~30 %) to the attenuation of light. The contribution of phytoplankton was about a third of the other two optically important constituents. CDOM concentrations varied with salinity and magnitude of riverine inputs demonstrating its terrestrial origin. Non-algal particle concentration also varied with river flow but also wind driven resuspension. Twelve of the NHEP estuarine assessment zones were observed with the hyperspectral aerial imagery on August 29 and October 17. A concurrent in situ effort included buoy measurements, continuous along-track sampling, discrete water grab samples, and vertical profiles of light attenuation. PAR effective attenuation coefficients retrieved from deep water regions in the imagery agreed well with in-situ observations. Water clarity was lower and optically important constituent concentrations were higher in the tributaries. Eelgrass survival depth, estimated as the depth at which 22% of surface light was available, ranged from less than half a meter to over two meters. The best water clarity was found in the Great Bay (GB), Little Bay (LB), and Lower Piscataqua River (LPR) assessment zones. Absence of eelgrass from these zones would indicate controlling factors other than water clarity. The research was funded from a grant to NHEP from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

(2008) Video-Based Mapping of Oyster Bottom in the Upper Piscataqua River, Sturgeon Creek, and Spruce Creek, Grizzle, R Towed, underwater videography was used to map and characterize the extent of oyster bottom in the upper Piscataqua River, Sturgeon Creek, and Spruce Creek. Georeferenced video imagery was obtained on five different days in summer and fall 2008. Significant shell bottom (with live oysters in most areas) was found only in the upper Piscataqua River in two areas: (1) the general location of the previously mapped (2003) upper Piscataqua River reef, and (2) in the Piscataqua River at the mouth of Sturgeon Creek. The Sturgeon Creek reef was classified into low and high density shell which covered a total area of 15.6 acres (~63,000 m2). Recommendations included additional survey work in the lower Salmon Falls and Cocheco Rivers, and Spruce Creek.

(2008) Water Quality Monitoring in North River and Little River in Nottingham, NH, Kimbal, D The Town of Nottingham Conservation Commission (NCC) in New Hampshire was awarded NHEP Local Grant funding to purchase water testing equipment for monitoring the North and Little Rivers as part of the New Hampshire Volunteer River Assessment Program (VRAP). The equipment enabled NCC and Lamprey River Watershed Association volunteer water samplers to efficiently monitor water quality on the two rivers twice a month from May 2007 to June 2008.

(2008) Wellhead Protection Program - Lary Lane, Gilman, and Stadium Wells in the Town of Exeter, NH, Walker, T The Rockingham Planning Commission (RPC) developed a Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) Program for three wells in Exeter, NH. The project was supported through the NHEP's Community Technical Assistance Program. One well is an active well for the town; two wells are inactive, but the town is considering future reactivation. For each well RPC assessed land use and wellhead protection area characteristics and inventoried potential contamination sources. Educational materials including a door hanger, bill insert, and website content were developed and will be used by the town in its outreach efforts. The report includes recommendations for the town to follow to implement an effective WHPA management program.

(2008) Wetland Buffer Characterization and Public Outreach in North Hampton, Lord, L & NHEP This report includes a characterization of wetland buffers and buffer protection in North Hampton and a community outreach newsletter that focuses on the protection of the North Hampton wetland buffers. Consultants from Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc conducted field examinations of key North Hampton wetland buffer areas and issued a technical memorandium that characterize wetland buffer areas in the town and discusses of the value of these areas in terms of public interest and property values. Much of the information presented in the technical memo was communicated in an eight-page newsletter produced at Fosters Daily Democrate. Fosters produced 3,000 copies and UNH Mailing Services sent them using saturation mailing rates that delivered one to every household in North Hampton (1925 residences), The newsletter highlights community wetland resources, functions and values of wetland buffers in North Hampton, and actions citizens can take to protect wetland buffers in the community. An electronic version of the newsletter is posted on the Town of North Hampton website.

(2007) 2005 Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Grant Project, Marcoux, J The 2005 Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination grant program, funded by the NHEP and administered by the NH Department of Environmental Services, involved grants to Rye, Somersworth, and Portsmouth. The Town of Rye conducted dry-weather surveys to find non-stormwater flows in the storm sewer system. Ten outfalls were found to have non-stormwater flows, which the town will work to rectify in the future. The City of Somersworth televised sewage and storm drainage lines in several areas of the city to confirm locations of suspected illicit connections. Three illicit connections were confirmed and eliminated.

(2007) 2005 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project, Marcoux, J The 2005 Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping grant program, funded by the NHEP and administered by the NH Department of Environmental Services, involved grants to Rye and Seabrook. The town of Rye hired a consultant to work with town staff to update maps with storm drainage features including catch basins, underground and above-ground storm drainage, direction of flow, and outfall locations. The town of Seabrook hired a consultant to complete the final stage of its ongoing stormwater infrastructure mapping project that has been underway for five years. Field inspections were completed for 460 structures, including 165 that previously had not been mapped.

(2007) 2006 Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Grant Program, Marcoux, J This grant program funded by the NHEP and administered by NH Department of Environmental Services was created to implement priority actions from the NHEP Management Plan by providing assistance to coastal communities to identify and eliminate illicit discharges. Three projects were implemented in this sixth year of the program. The Town of Durham surveyed fifty-nine outfalls for illicit discharges. None were discovered. The City of Rochester eliminated a residential direct sewage discharge into the Salmon Falls River. The Town of Exeter, in coordination with the Seacoast Stormwater Coalition, developed and implemented a training program to assist municipal stormwater program supervisors with illicit discharge detection and remediation, and pollution prevention/good housekeeping practices. Two hundred forty seacoast area individuals (primarily public works staff) were trained through the project.

(2007) 2006 Great Bay Organic Nitrogen (PON & DON) and Light Extinction (PAR) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The UNH organic nitrogen and light extinction monthly monitoring program gathers important data that, when combined with the Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve System-Wide Monitoring Program (SWMP) program, provide comprehensive coverage of the Great Bay estuary and allow total nitrogen concentrations to be calculated for use in nutrient criteria measurements. UNH researchers completed the organic nitrogen and light extinction workplan in 2006. A total of 70, 132, and 214 measurements were made for light extinction, particulate nitrogen/carbon and dissolved nitrogen, respectively. The average light extinction coefficient in 2006 was -1.76 m-1. Average concentrations of nitrogen species at all stations were 0.213, 0.236, and 0.124 mg-N/L for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate nitrogen, respectively. The average concentration of particulate carbon was 1.112 mg-C/L.

(2007) 2006 Great Bay Water Quality (DataSonde) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The University of New Hampshire completed this project with the objective to: (1) support in situ water quality monitoring for the April – December sampling season at the Lamprey River (LR), Squamscott River (SQ), Oyster River (OR), Great Bay (GB) and Coastal Marine Lab (CML) sites; and (2) fund the deployment of in situ water quality monitoring at the Salmon Falls (SF) for July, August and September. The data and all associated meta-data for the GB, LR, SQ and OR sites are available at http://cdmo.baruch.sc.edu/home.html and by following the links to: (a) NERR Data; (b) NERR Data and Associated Metadata; (c) NERR SWMP Water Quality Data; and (d) Great Bay (GRB). For the CML site, DataSondes were successfully deployed as planned. The data for these deployments will be uploaded to the NHDES Environmental Monitoring Database.

(2007) 2007 Eye On Estuaries Column, Kellam, D Three articles on estuarine issues related to NHEP Management Plan implementation were published from July 2007 to December 2007. Two were published in the Portsmouth Herald and one was published in the Fosters Daily Democrat. Topics included wetland ordinance development (July 07), data collection buoys (August 07), and toxicity of lead in the estuary (Dec 07.

(2007) Ambient Rivers Monitoring in the Great Bay Estuary Watershed 2006, Landry, N The Department of Environmental Services (DES) received funding from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) to conduct monitoring activities in 2006. The activities described in this report were led by the DES Watershed Assistance Section and involved water monitoring at the head-of-tide in nine tidal tributaries. Other DES staff conducted laboratory analyses. These monitoring activities were completed with the overall purpose of improving the understanding of water quality trends. DES completed all tasks as planned. This report includes the sample collection information, field and laboratory data, and quality assurance information. Data summaries and interpretations will come at a later time in other DES and NHEP publications.

(2007) Buffer Projects in the Town of Wakefield and City of Somersworth, LaBranche, J The Strafford Regional Planning Commission (SRPC) worked to improve buffer protections and management in two towns. In the Town of Wakefield, SRPC worked with the Acton Wakefield Watersheds Alliance to develop a buffer evaluation form to assist property owners assess the condition of their riparian buffers and a buffer brochure describing the value of buffers. SRPC worked with the City of Somersworth planning staff and the conservation commission to develop a draft riparian and wetland buffer ordinance to replace an existing wetland conservation district ordinance. The draft ordinance proposes a 250-foot buffer for all surface waters, including a 25-foot naturally vegetated buffer area with no disturbance.

(2007) City of Portsmouth Prime Wetlands Analysis Report, West, M West Environmental, Inc. (WEI) worked with the City of Portsmouth to evaluate and designate prime wetlands. WEI reviewed the technical criteria for prime wetlands designation with the Conservation Commission and Planning Department staff and developed a Portsmouth specific evaluation form. Twenty-seven wetlands, including 21 identified in the 2003 City Wide Wetlands Inventory and six additional wetlands, were evaluated and field inspected to verify boundaries and functional analysis. Two of the original wetlands were combined based on field inspection. Thirteen wetlands were proposed for designation. These wetlands total 1,908 acres and provide key wetland wildlife habitat, link to undeveloped upland habitat, and represent the largest and best functioning wetland systems in the City.

(2007) Coastal Watershed Land Conservation Transaction Grant Program, 2005-2007, Taylor, J The Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests administered the Coastal Watershed Land Conservation Transaction Grant Program with funding from the NHEP. From July 2005 to July 2007 a total of $70,000 was awarded to 16 different organizations to assist with transaction costs for 28 projects that achieved permanent land conservation in the New Hampshire coastal watershed. The projects protected 2,220 acres in 15 different communities. The $70,000 in grant funds were matched by $224,651 of transaction costs from other sources. The value of the land protected is well over $17,000,000. Twenty projects met the criteria for adding to existing protected areas. Eight protected frontage on rivers, for a total of 13,900 feet on five different rivers (Dudley Brook, North River, Mad River, Piscassic River, and Exeter River). Three projects protected important wetlands. Five projects protected critical wildlife habitat or special species. Twenty-four projects were included as priorities in some land conservation plan. Twenty were acquired for less than full value, either as a bargain sale or as a donation.

(2007) Conservation Audit and Stewardship Plan, Kane, C A Conservation Audit and Stewardship Plan for North Hampton was prepared by Chris Kane. In the Audit portion, all references to any lands in Town that had appeared on any list as potentially held for conservation purposes were researched. Other sources of data regarding conservation lands were also investigated, including the GIS mapping Conservation Lands data layer administered by Complex Systems at the University of New Hampshire. All available records in the Town Offices were searched, including tax card files, Conservation Commission property files, old plans, and lists of Town lands and Conservation lands. A thorough search of the records at the Rockingham County Registry of Deeds provided much of the critical information and documents that the Audit relied on. As the information on properties was gathered, they were entered into a database by Tax Map, Lot and Sub-lot number. Twenty fields of important data were recorded for each parcel. These include acreage, type of protection, book and page of recorded documents and plans, summary of the conservation restrictions, and recommendations for stewardship. Informed by the Conservation Audit, a Stewardship Plan was produced to help guide the Conservation Commission in its continuing efforts to carryout land conservation and stewardship of their Town-owned and easement lands.

(2007) Conservation Easement Monitoring-Brentwood, NHSC NHSC, Inc. has completed the baseline monitoring and documentation for fourteen conservation easement parcels located in Brentwood, NH.

(2007) Cooperative Project to Control Invasive Plants in the New Hampshire Seacoast Region, RCCD The Rockingham County Conservation District (RCCD) describes the activities involved in coordinating a group of Project Partners to combat invasive species in the Seacoast. Project Partners include the University of New Hampshire, New Hampshire Estuaries Project, the New Hampshire Coastal Program, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Rockingham County Conservation District, New Hampshire Audubon, the Town of Rye, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the Corporate Wetlands Restoration Partnership. The goal of this project was to develop invasive species control plans for parcels in the New Hampshire Seacoast, treat approximately 100 acres of invasive species over the next 5 years, treat a minimum of 10 acres during the first year of the project, build RCCD’s capacity to coordinate invasive plant management projects; and explore partnerships to expand integrated pest management for invasive plant species. The report describes control measures recommended on approximately 30 acres of land across five land parcels that are infested with invasive species in Rye and North Hampton. A contractor was selected to begin treatment of these areas and the work is documented by site photos. Aerial photography of the five locations are presented in the report that indicate management areas, recommended actions, work completed between the fall of 2006 and the spring of 2007, and 11 monitoring sites. The report offers an extensive list of recommendations. One of the positive outcomes cited by the report is the development of a Cooperative Weed Management Area in the Seacoast, designated the “New Hampshire Coastal Watershed Invasive Plant Partnership”.

(2007) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2005, Short, F Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is an essential habitat for the Great Bay Estuary (GBE) because it provides food for wintering waterfowl and habitat for juvenile fish and shellfish. Starting in 1986, the University of New Hampshire has mapped the distribution of eelgrass in the estuary annually. The present report describes and interprets the eelgrass distribution data collected in 2005 for the Great Bay Estuary. In 2005, eelgrass biomass decreased in the Great Bay Estuary while eelgrass distribution increased slightly. Eelgrass was present throughout much of its expected range in the estuary, although there are still large areas of the estuary that historically supported eelgrass and currently do not, including Little Bay, the Piscataqua River, and parts of Portsmouth Harbor and Little Harbor. Despite a few increases in low biomass eelgrass bed distribution in the upper estuary, the continued decrease in eelgrass biomass in the estuary overall is indicative of poor water quality conditions.

(2007) Final Report Overview - Kingston, Stone, A The objective of the Kingston project was to revise the town’s wetlands conservation district regulations and create new stormwater regulations. The proposed stormwater regulations were consistent with state and federal stormwater requirements. The main areas covered in the proposed regulations were a prohibition against illicit discharges and illegal dumping to Kingston’s storm drainage system, erosion prevention and sediment control at construction sites, and post-construction (permanent) stormwater control. The proposed stormwater regulations were intended to replace an existing article in Kingston’s code on sediment and erosion control, and to expand the regulations to cover other aspects of stormwater control required under US EPA’s Phase II stormwater rules. The revised version of the wetlands conservation district regulations proposed heightening wetlands protection in some respects and defining appropriate buffer widths around wetlands based on wetland characteristics and the underlying zoning district. The Town of Kingston chose to work on revision of the wetlands conservation district regulations prior to addressing the larger and more complicated stormwater regulations. The wetlands regulations will be on the March 2008 town warrant.

(2007) Final Report-RPC Buffer Project, Walker, T The Rockingham Planning Commission (RPC) met with members of the Planning Boards and Conservation Commission in the Towns of Kensington, Brentwood, Hampton Falls, and Fremont to review NHEP shoreland buffer maps. RPC reviewed existing land use regulations in each community relative to protection of shoreland buffers, reviewed land use regulations proposed by the Land Conservation Plan for NH's Coastal Watersheds, discussed local concerns about protecting buffers, and provided draft local land use regulations to increase the protection of buffers.

(2007) Hydrological Parameters for New Hampshire's Estuaries, Trowbridge, P This NHEP report summarizes the available hydrologic information for the Great Bay Estuary and Hampton-Seabrook Estuary. The latest information on watershed drainage area, tidal shoreline, surface area, volume, salinity, depth, and a host of other physical characteristics are included. The values presented in this report will be used for all NHEP reporting and should be used for any national databases for estuarine classifications.

(2007) Identify and Report Water Pollution (2nd Edition), nhep Be Part of the Solution: Identify and Report Water Pollution: an Interpretive Guide to Surface Water Conditions of the New Hampshire Coastal Watershed, 2nd edition" is designed to help people who work or recreate outdoors to interpret surface water conditions so that they would recognize a pollution incident and know how to report it. The guide suggests actions that communities can take to prevent water pollution and protect vital water resources. Finally, the guide includes helpful, relevant resources that will further explain particular surface water conditions.

(2007) Impacts of Wastewater Treatment Facilities on Receiving Water Quality, Jones, S The Squamscott River has had extended episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) that have been recorded at a site near its mouth over the past few years. These episodes were recorded as a result of temporally intensive monitoring by a datasonde, whereas data for the rest of the river has been spotty. Thus, the spatial extent of low DO episodes is not known. This study was designed to better characterize the spatial extent of DO conditions along the full length of the river, as well as to determine nutrient and other water quality parameters along the transect to help understand possible causes of low DO levels. Sampling and measurements were taken on five dates in 2005 and one in 2006. Only one date, August 19, 2005, showed spatially extensive low DO levels. The nutrient and chlorophyll a levels at the different sampling sites in the Squamscott River did not appear to have any discernable relationship with DO levels. The Exeter WWTF was a consistently significant source of nutrients to the river, but DO conditions at the outfall pipe were never below target levels. Overall, conditions recorded by the datasonde for 2005 showed greatly diminished episodes of depressed DO levels compared to previous years. Future studies should focus first on verifying the spatial extent of conditions that are conducive to depressed DO levels as indicated by existing sonde data.

(2007) Impervious Surface Analysis for Durham Under Current and Build-out Conditions, Braun Stone Environmental, Inc. provided assistance in the area of stormwater management to the Town of Durham through the NHEP Community Technical Assistance Program. Part of the project involved calculating impervious surfaces under build-out conditions. The analysis used the 2005 impervious surface estimates developed by UNH Complex Systems Research Center and a build-out analysis previously completed by the Strafford Regional Planning Commission. Two scenarios were analyzed, with different assumptions about impervious surface ratios. In 2005, impervious surfaces in Durham accounted for 6.5% of land area. At build-out, impervious surface was estimated at 12.7% and 10.3%, depending on the ratio used.

(2007) Newmarket Open Space Conservation Plan, Snyder, E Ellen Synder, Ibis Wildlife Consulting, prepare an Open Space Conservation Plan for the town of Newmarket. The plan will guide the protection and management of Newmarket's open spaces.

(2007) NHDES Shellfish Program Activities, January-December 2006, Nash, C. & Wood, M. The NH Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) Shellfish Program's work in 2006 included its many ongoing water quality sampling activities to minimize the health risks associated with consuming shellfish and to comply with the National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines. The Shellfish Program completed sanitary surveys in the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary and the Piscataqua River (North) growing area that includes the tidal portions of the Cocheco, Salmon Falls, and Upper Piscataqua Rivers. At present 87% of estuarine waters are classified. The Shellfish Program continued its study of two different bacterial analysis methods in 2006 to determine impacts of method on growing area classification. NHEP funding for the Shellfish Program in 2006 covered laboratory analytical costs associated with the sampling activities of the program.

(2007) NHDHHS Public Health Laboratories Shellfish Program Activities, January-December 2006, Wikoff The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Public Health Laboratories, with funding from the NHEP, continued analyses to support the NHDES Shellfish Program's routine water quality monitoring, red tide monitoring, and additional testing after rainfall, excess sewage discharge, and other emergency events in 2006. Analyses for the year included bacterial, pH, and salinity tests for 868 water samples; bacterial tests for 91 shellfish tissue samples; and PSP toxin tests for 61 shellfish tissue samples. Results for all the tests are provided in the report appendices.

(2007) NHEP 2007 Progress Report, NHEP This report summarizes progress made toward implementing the New Hampshire Estuaries Project Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) and evaluates the status of environmental and administrative indicators based upon management goals and objectives. The report is divided into two primary sections: (I) Status of Environmental and Administrative Indicators and (II) Action Plan Completion.

(2007) NHEP Overview, NHEP The NHEP describes current activities, funding, and organizational structure.

(2007) NHEP Year 12 Work Plan, Hunter, J This Work Plan represents the twelfth year of NHEP activities and is developed with input from NHEP’s four project teams. The Plan describes recent accomplishments and projects to be undertaken beginning in 2008 to implement the NHEP Management Plan. Also included are a list of ongoing projects, a summary of meetings and milestones from the last year, relevance of activities to the Clean Water Act programs, and the overall budget.

(2007) Outreach Campaign to Facilitate Water Pollution Reporting, NHEP Describes the NHEP's efforts to develop outreach materials to address Action Plan WQ-6: Promote collaboration of state and local officials to locate and eliminate illegal discharges into surface waters. NHEP worked with DES and a a group of expert reviewers from UNH and DES to draft a "Identify and Report Water Pollution Guide", a water pollution poster, and a water pollution reporting bookmark. UNH Printing produced 1000 booklets, 1000 posters, and 1000 bookmarks. A set of these materials were sent to DPWs and libraries in each of the coastal watershed communities.

(2007) Pleasant Point Sewer Extension, Rice, Peter The purpose of this project was to extend the City of Portsmouth sewer to the Pleasant Point area which is adjacent to the Back Channel area of the Piscataqua River. Seventeen homes in the area were using septic systems to treat wastewater. Several of these septic systems were failing and several more were near failing and contributing to water quality problems. The project included the installation of a low pressure sewer in the Pleasant Point area connecting to an existing gravity sewer on New Castle Avenue. Homeowners were responsible for tying into the sewer services at the edge of their property line. This project helped implement NHEP Action Plan WQ-7 related to the elimination of failing septic systems. In addition, this project was identified as a priority Action Item in the Total Maximum Daily Load Study for Bacteria in Little Harbor, New Hampshire. The project was funded in part by a grant from the NHEP, a State Revolving Fund loan, City sewer system revenues, and private participation.

(2007) Predicting the Success of Invasive Species in the Great Bay Estuarine Researve, Harris, L The University of New Hampshire Zoology Department reports on a study designed to continue monitoring the distribution of invasive species in the Great Bay Estuary and to carry out laboratory experiments designed to test the effects of salinity on ascidian mortality and determine predators of ascidian species. Researchers collected presence/absence and abundance data of invasive species at four sites within the Great Bay Estuarine System. The report gives a brief description of the results of the monitoring program to compare results obtained from 2006 to 2007 and to assess the response of ascidians to varying salinity and predators. This report specifically includes monitoring data from 2007 and results of laboratory and field experiments examining the effects of salinity and predators on ascidian distribution.

(2007) Review of Durham's Regulations Related to Stormwater Management, Braun Stone Environmental, Inc. provided assistance to the Town of Durham through the NHEP Community Technical Assistance Program. The consultant reviewed Durham's existing regulations related to stormwater management and compared the Town's development rules to 20 model development principles developed by the Center for Watershed Protection. The consultant reviewed a Draft Stormwater Ordinance, originally developed for the Town in 2003, and recommended detailed changes to provide consistency with state and federal regulations and more recent approaches to stormwater management.

(2007) Review of Northwood's Stormwater Management Regulations, Braun Stone Environmental, Inc. provided assistance to the Town of Northwood through the NHEP Community Technical Assistance Program. The consultant reviewed Northwood's existing regulations and compared the Town's development rules to 20 model development principles developed by the Center for Watershed Protection. Revisions suggested to Northwood's development ordinance, subdivision regulations, and site plan review regulations are intended to improve stormwater management and water quality in the community. In addition, Stone Environmental identifies several new ordinances for the Town to consider as part of a comprehensive stormwater management approach, including a buffer protection ordinance, illicit discharge prohibition ordinance, post-construction stormwater control ordinance, pet waste ordinance, and an ordinance banning phosphorus fertilizers.

(2007) Shoreland Buffers in the Towns of Candia and Deerfield, Munn, J The towns of Candia and Deerfield worked with the Southern New Hampshire Regional Planning Commission (SNHPC) to develop and implement land use regulations to protect the remaining undisturbed natural shoreline buffers along the Lamprey and North Branch Rivers (2nd order or higher streams and tributaries) and other surface waters within these communities. The project was approached in two overall steps. Step one involved preparing an inventory, delineation and map of the remaining undisturbed natural vegetated buffers in both communities. Following completion of the inventory and mapping results, step two of the project consisted of a thorough analysis of both towns’ existing land use regulations primarily focusing on setbacks, buffers and wetlands. Three major shoreland protection options were identified and evaluated. The preferred option consisted of improving the town’s existing regulations and educating town officials and town board’s about the State’s Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act (CSPA) requirements and how/where these requirements apply within each town.

(2007) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens in 2006, Nelson, J Testing done annually since 1995 documents that two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo), are present in Great Bay oysters. Based on testing done by Rutgers University with funding from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, the Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department assessed the presence and intensity of both disease conditions in oysters from the major beds, some open for harvest, within the Great Bay estuarine system. Severity of infection and prevalence varies from site to site and over time at a specific site. The year 2006 oyster tests show continued presence of MSX in Great Bay. Dermo was seen for the fifth successive year after a nearly five year absence in oysters. Also present but of unknown pathogenicity are ciliate produced xenomas in gill tissue. The report recommends: (1) This testing program should continue with samples from major oyster beds within the Great Bay system; (2) Movement of oysters from bed to bed within the Great Bay system should be carefully controlled; and (3) The effect of ciliate xenomas should be further studied.

(2007) Town of Fremont Wetland Evaluation Report, West, M Through the NHEP's Community Technical Assistance Program, West Environmental, Inc. (WEI) evaluated wetlands in the Town of Fremont. Fifty-five wetlands, totaling 1,338.5 acres, were inventoried and evaluated after initial mapping. The assessment evaluated each wetland for functions such as groundwater recharge/discharge, flood-flow alteration, sediment retention, nutrient removal, wildlife habitat, and recreational values. Wetlands were placed in one of four tiers as a result of the evaluation. WEI recommends all of the wetlands in Tiers 1, 2 & 3 be nominated as prime wetland candidates for designation by Fremont to the NHDES Wetlands Bureau. These 26 wetlands represent the highest functioning wetlands that provide critical habitat and crucial wetlands function. The majority of these wetlands are identified as highest value wildlife habitat in the NH Fish & Game’s Wildlife Action Plan.

(2007) TOWN OF NEW DURHAM Town of New Durham Zoning and Land Use Ordinance, Jeffery Taylor Assoc The Town of New Durham with assistance from Jeffery Taylor Associates drafted a buffer ordinance that was approved and will be on the 2007 Town Warrant in March.

(2007) Wakefield Land Conservation Education & Outreach Project, Barstow & Schlenker The Town of Wakefield, a participant in the 2005 Natural Resources Outreach Coalition program, received an implementation grant from the NHEP to support land conservation efforts. The Wakefield Land Conservation Group conducted a survey of voters to better understand opinions of using public funds for land conservation, after a very close town vote. The Land Conservation Group used information from the survey to guide subsequent education and outreach efforts that included contacting land owners and producing and distributing a brochure.

(2006) 2005 Great Bay Organic Nitrogen (PON & DON) and Light Extinction (PAR) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire reports their efforts in 2005 to monitor particulate organic nitrogen (PON), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at the six sites that are part of the System-wide Monitoring Program, including the Lamprey, Squamscott, and Oyster Rivers and Chapman's Landing, Great Bay, and the Coastal Marine Lab. PON and DON measurements allow for the calculation of total nitrogen, and PAR measures light availability. Methods used are specified in the approved quality assurance project plan. JEL recommends continuing testing as PON, DON, and PAR levels are important indicators of water quality and will be useful for development of nutrient criteria for New Hampshire's estuaries.

(2006) 2005 Great Bay Water Quality (DataSonde) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire reports project results for their in situ water quality monitoring for sites in the Lamprey, Squamscott, Oyster, and Salmon Falls Rivers, Great Bay, and the Coastal Marine Lab (CML). NHEP funding supported the monitoring at the CML and the Salmon Falls River. Sampling was done using datasondes, which are programmed to obtain measurements of conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, saturation, pH, temperature, water level, and turbidity every half-hour. Data were collected from April to December 2005 at all sites except the Salmon Falls River where data were collected for July, August, and September only. The in situ water quality monitoring program continued to provide important data on basic parameters in the Great Bay estuary. JEL recommended that monitoring at the CML and Salmon Falls River sites be continued since they provide more comprehensive coverage of the Great Bay estuary system.

(2006) 2006 Exeter River Alewife Festival, ERLAC On June 4, 2006, the Exeter River Local Advisory Committee held the 6th annual Exeter River Alewife Festival along the banks of the Squamscott River in downtown Exeter. Three dozen organizations exhibited at the Festival and event organizers estimated approximately 300 people attended the event despite inclement weather. The purpose of the Festival was to increase awareness of the Exeter River watershed and its the role in providing drinking water, wildlife habitat and scenic, historic and recreational resources for residents in the ten watershed towns. ERLAC also produced maps of the watershed for public education as well as posters, banners, and newspaper advertisements announcing the event.

(2006) 2006 NHEP Implementation Review, Hunter, J The report contains an overview of NHEP accomplishments and activities since the last Implementation Review conducted by US EPA in 2002. The report also includes responses to the challenges identified during the last review and information on how the NHEP helps implement the EPA's core Clean Water Act programs.

(2006) 2006 State of the Estuaries Report, NHEP Produced every three years, this report includes information on the status and trends of a select group of environmental indicators from the coastal watershed and estuaries. It provides the NHEP, natural resource managers, local officials, conservation organizations, and the public with information on the effects of management decisions and actions. Prior to developing each State of the Estuaries report, the NHEP publishes four technical data reports (“indicator reports”) that illustrate the status and trends of the complete collection of indicators tracked by the NHEP. Each report focuses on a different suite of indicators: Water Quality, Shellfish, Critical Habitats and Species, and Land Use and Development. The 2006 State of the Estuaries Report communicates the status of 12 out of 34 environmental indicators tracked by the NHEP. For each of these key indicators it provides the reader with the associated NHEP management goal and an explanation of supporting data. For some of the 12 indicators, additional information from supporting or related indicators is presented to further explain trends or to provide context for the primary indicators. The report was released during the State of the Estuaries Conference and all attendees received a copy. Copies will also be sent to coastal watershed legislators, planning boards, and conservation commissions.

(2006) Ambient Rivers Monitoring in the Great Bay Estuary Watershed 2005, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) water quality monitoring activities in tidal tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary for 2005 are reported. Studies were led by the DES Watershed Assistance Section with the intent to improve understanding of water quality trends and provide data to support the NHEP Monitoring Plan. Field measurements were made for dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and turbidity. Laboratory analysis was conducted for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia, nitrate/nitrite, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, and chlorophyll-a. Testing consistent with the Ambient River Monitoring Plan QAPP was performed at six tidal dams on rivers (Exeter, Lamprey, Oyster, Bellamy, Cocheco, and Salmon Falls) and at two tributaries of Little Harbor (Berry's Brook and Sagamore Creek). Continued monthly monitoring was recommended. NHEP's draft Water Quality Indicators report recommends removing BOD from the list of monitoring tests. BOD levels were consistently below the analytical method detection level, and the costs of switching to a laboratory with the necessary equipment for more sensitive testing are high.

(2006) Buffers: Protecting Water Resources, NHEP The NHEP describes the assistance available to communities to protect buffers, including customized educational presentations and facilitated discussions aimed at giving a town information and buffer protection tools, such as model ordinances.

(2006) Cains Brook and Mill Creek Watershed Management Plan, Town of Seabrook The Town of Seabrook enlisted the assistance of engineering consultants to develop a management plan for the Cain’s Brook and Mill Creek Watershed. The plan includes inventories of water resources, topography, soils, wildlife, vegetation, rare species, and exemplary communities, as well as summaries of previous resource studies in the watershed. Restoration opportunities are described, as well as recreational opportunities for small boat access, fishing, walking, and bird watching. The plan also lists current regulatory programs and outlines alternative management strategies appropriate for the watershed. The consultant, working closely with the Seabrook Conservation Commission and the community, developed 33 action plans and an associated implementation program that prioritizes the actions and identifies responsible parties.

(2006) Coastal Conservation Lands Update (2005), Rubin, F The Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire reports updates made to their GRANIT Conservation and Protected Lands Data Layer. The data set contains a digital record of parcels of land of two or more acres that are mostly undeveloped and protected from future development. Data on current protected lands were collected, reviewed, and processed for 48 communities in New Hampshire's seacoast, including the 42 towns within the New Hampshire Estuaries Project area. GRANIT staff contacted each community's conservation commission as well as all semi-public land entities and land trusts active in the region, to solicit updates and additions to the data set. The New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning then contacted state and federal agencies managing property on the seacoast to compare information. As a result, 166 new tracts covering over 6,000 acres were added to the database, and 122 tracts were modified to incorporate corrections.

(2006) Continued Wetlands Assessment, Inventory and Prime Wetlands Designation in Hampton and Hampton Falls, RCCD The Hampton Falls Conservation Commission and the Rockingham County Conservation District report on activities to inventory and evaluate wetland functions and values, educate communities on wetlands values, obtain prime wetlands designation (PWD) status, and produce ordinances to support PWD in Hampton and Hampton Falls. The towns hired a wetlands scientist to assess all wetlands greater than two acres and produce a detailed report for the top 20 wetland complexes in the two municipalities. The project incorporated results from Phase I of the study, which focused on wetlands assessment in the Taylor River watershed. The map boundaries and assessment data from Phase I were integrated into the wetlands analysis for comprehensive coverage of both communities completed in Phase II. The 20 wetlands identified were condensed down to eight wetlands complexes for further evaluation and recommended for PWD. Public informational meetings and workshops were held to share information about the project. Warrant articles will be developed and promoted by conservation commissions in both towns for town approval in 2007.

(2006) Development and Monitoring of Revegetation Methods:. . .in Awcomin Marsh, Burdick, D The University of New Hampshire reports on a revegetation project and an assessment of a 2002 experimental cordgrass planting in Awcomin Marsh. Five classes in a Portsmouth elementary school participated in an effort to grow and plant high marsh and upper border vegetation at a salt marsh restoration site. Seeds of six marsh upper edge species were germinated and grown into seedlings by third grade students and planted by the students in late spring 2005, however only switchgrass and quackgrass plants appeared to have established and survived after one year. Mature shoots of three high marsh species (salt hay, salt grass and black grass) established successfully and continue to proliferate. The study also assessed an experimental cordgrass planting installed in 2002. After four growing seasons, Plug, Bare Root Shoot, and Seed Head planting techniques exhibited greater cover of cordgrass and total cover of vascular plants when compared with unplanted areas. Cover of perennial plants (e.g., cordgrass) dominated the planted plots; cover of annual species dominated the unplanted plots. Recommendations include the use of bare root shoot and seed head planting techniques where cordgrass is desired. Outside plots or a greenhouse may be needed for successful propagation of upper edge marsh species from seed, and a planting program that includes mature plants as well as seedlings is recommended

(2006) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2004, Short, F In 2004, the NHEP funded annual monitoring for eelgrass in the Great Bay Estuary by UNH Jackson Estuarine Laboratory. Researchers collected aerial photography of eelgrass coverage for 2005 and mapped eelgrass distribution for 2004 from the information gathered in the summer of 2004 (aerial photography and ground truthing). In 2004, eelgrass distribution and percent cover slightly increased in the Great Bay Estuary over 2003, mostly due to increases in Great Bay itself. Loss of habitat was seen in the eelgrass meadow between Fishing Island and Gerrish Island and in Little Harbor, both of which lost distribution and percent cover, as well as in the Piscataqua River. Eelgrass was present throughout much of its expected range in the estuary, although there are still large areas of the estuary that historically supported eelgrass and currently do not. Due to the increases in Great Bay and at the mouth of the estuary, there was higher percent cover than in 2003, representing a slight overall increase in eelgrass abundance between 2003 and 2004.

(2006) Eye On Estuaries: NH tourist, the bluefish, soon to depart bay, Kellam, D An educational column about coastal watershed issues that appears in the Portsmouth Herald and is initiated by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project.

(2006) Great Bay Estuary Restoration Compendium, Odell, et al The Nature Conservancy, in cooperation with a several other organizations, reports on restoration opportunities in and around the Great Bay Estuary. The authors created a conceptual site selection model based on a comparison of historic and modern distributions and abundance data, current environmental conditions, and expert review. Restoration targets include oysters and softshell clams, salt marshes, eelgrass beds, and seven diadromous fish species. Spatial data showing the historical and present day distributions for multiple species and habitats were compiled and integrated into a geographic information system. A matrix of habitat interactions was developed to identify potential for synergy and subsequent restoration efficiency. Output from the site selection models was considered within this framework to identify ecosystem restoration landscapes. The report include a series of maps detailing multi-habitat restoration opportunities extending from upland freshwater fish habitat down to the bay bottom. A companion guidance document was created to present project methods and a review of restoration methods.

(2006) Greenland Conservation and Land Stewardship Plan, Synder, E The Greenland Planning Board applied for and received support from the NHEP to develop stewardship plans for town-owned lands. The Town is working on a Master Plan update, as well as considering the expenditure of a $2 million bond for land acquisition. This project enables the Town to assess existing town lands for natural resource values and stewardship needs and identify other areas within Town as conservation priorities. The information in this Plan can be inserted into the Master Plan as appropriate. The Stewardship Plans and Greenland Conservation Plan were prepared by Ellen Snyder, Ibis Wildlife Consulting, Newmarket, New Hampshire. This Plan has two parts: -Greenland Conservation Plan This section reviews existing information about the Town of Greenland, including community conservation goals as described in the community profile report, master plan, open space plan, water resources plan and other documents. It highlights the unique and important natural resources and infrastructures in town. The Plan includes an assessment of existing town owned lands to determine their potential conservation values and evaluates opportunities to protect other important natural resources in town through new land conservation projects and other mechanisms. -Site-Specific Stewardship Plans This section includes specific land management and stewardship recommendations for four town-owned parcels: Coastal Way (Morgan Ryan), Coakley Estate, Post Road (2 parcels), and Packer Bog (many parcels). Recommendations are also provided for several smaller town-owned properties.

(2006) Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures for IDDE and Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping, Edwards and Kelcey The City of Portsmouth, with grant funding from the NHEP, hired Edwards and Kelcey to develop a manual to assist with several requirements of the federal stormwater management program (Phase II requirements). Designed specifically for New Hampshire communities, this manual addresses illicit discharge detection and elimination (IDDE) programs and pollution prevention/good housekeeping for municipal activities. The manual is written for program managers with responsibility for developing town stormwater programs and for municipal employees such as public works staff who will implement programs on a day-to-day basis. The manual offers guidance on six steps to develop a customized IDDE program. It also includes commonly accepted technical standards and guidance on stormwater management measures to control the quantity and quality of stormwater produced from municipal activities. This manual can help communities improve their stormwater management programs and provides a basis for future employee training programs. Portsmouth worked closely with other Seacoast Stormwater Coalition members provide input to the contractor in developing the manual.

(2006) Impervious Surface Mapping in Coastal New Hampshire (2005), Justice, D & Rubin, F The Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire reports results of the NHEP-funded project to estimate impervious surface acreage for a 48-town region of coastal New Hampshire for 2005 (including the 42 towns within the NHEP area). Both traditional and subpixel image classification techniques were applied to 30-meter Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data acquired October 3, 2005. The classifications indicated that impervious surface coverage increased from 4.3% (31,233 acres) in 1990 to 6.3% (45,445 acres) in 2000 to 7.4% (53,408 acres) in 2005, an overall increase of 3.1% in fifteen years. The data set representing impervious surface acreage has been archived in GRANIT GIS clearinghouse, making it available to the general public. As recent state figures project population increases of 21% from 2005 to 2025 in Rockingham and Strafford counties, impervious assessment was recommended to be repeated on 3-5 year cycles to monitor changes. NHEP NOTE: The NHEP study area differs from the study area of this report. Impervious surface estimates for the NHEP study area increased from 4.7% (24,349 acres) in 1990 to 6.8% (35,503 acres) in 2000 to 8.0% (41,784 acres) in 2005, an overall increase of 3.3% in fifteen years.

(2006) Impervious Surface Mapping in Coastal New Hampshire (2005), Justice, D The Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire reports results of the NHEP-funded project to estimate impervious surface acreage for a 48-town region of coastal New Hampshire for 2005 (including the 42 towns within the NHEP area). Both traditional and subpixel image classification techniques were applied to 30-meter Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data acquired October 3, 2005. The classifications indicated that impervious surface coverage increased from 4.3% (31,233 acres) in 1990 to 6.3% (45,445 acres) in 2000 to 7.4% (53,408 acres) in 2005, an overall increase of 3.1% in fifteen years. The data set representing impervious surface acreage has been archived in GRANIT GIS clearinghouse, making it available to the general public. As recent state figures project population increases of 21% from 2005 to 2025 in Rockingham and Strafford counties, impervious assessment was recommended to be repeated on 3-5 year cycles to monitor changes.

(2006) Juvenile soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria L.research in the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary, Beal, B A series of field experiments was conducted at two intertidal sites in the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary from November 2004-2006 to assess the efficacy of enhancing intertidal areas with cultured clam (Mya arenaria L.) seed (mean shell length[SL] = 7-10 mm). Measurement variables in each experiment included survival and growth of both cultured and wild seed clams. The first of three trials (November 2004 -May 2005) examined the interactive effects of size of planting area (4, 8, 12 and 18 square meters) and predator deterrent netting (none, 4.2 mm, and 6.4 mm aperture [flexible, plastic netting]) at the Willows Flat in the Hampton River. The second trial (June -October 2005) examined the effect of predator deterrent netting at two discrete intertidal locations at the Willows Flat. The third trial (April - November 2006) replicated trial two except at two intertidal sites within the estuary approximately 3 km apart. Results from the study, together with those from a previous, smaller-scale investigation in the same estuary (Beal, 2002) suggest that clam enhancement can be successful as long as netting is properly deployed and maintained through regular inspections. Seeding should occur in early spring (late March or April of Year I) when seawater temperatures are below 10 degC. Animals should be seeded at densities between 500-1000 individuals per square meter (ca. 50-100 individuals per square foot) and then covered with a plastic, flexible netting with an aperture size of 4.2 mm. Because predation in the estuary is so intense and affects all but the largest sizes of clams, nets should be maintained in situ as long as possible, perhaps as long as it takes the shellfish to attain harvestable sizes (50.8 mm SL, or 2-inches). A large proportion of these animals will be ready for harvest by October or November in Year II.

(2006) Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire’s Coastal Watersheds – Implementation & Outreach, Zankel, M The Nature Conservancy, Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, Rockingham Planning Commission and Strafford Regional Planning Commission conducted various outreach activities to promote implementation of the Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire's Coastal Watersheds (the Plan). Seven field trips and two workshops were conducted to reach target audiences, a poster describing the Plan was developed, additional copies of the Plan distributed to town boards, and town-scale maps were provided to all conservation commissions. The planning commissions worked with the towns of Lee, New Durham, East Kingston, and Hampton Falls to review and implement various strategies from the Plan.

(2006) Little River Park, Phase Two Report, Cox, L The Town of Lee purchased the Mills property from the Estate of Gail Mills, on January 25, 2006, for a total of $134,200. The Town of Lee subsequently executed a conservation easement on the property. The Strafford County Conservation District holds the easement. The NHEP contributed $27,500 to this project. A total of 11.93 acres were permanently protected from development including 1,140 feet of shoreland along the Little River. The final report contains copies of the executed bill of sale and conservation easement.

(2006) Low Impact Stormwater Management Projects at the University of New Hampshire, Jones, S & Houle, J Low Impact Development (LID) is a storm water best management practice (BMP) involving the use of small-scale storm water management controls that are placed at strategic points to control the impacts of contaminants generated from storm water runoff from transportation infrastructure. These sustainable management measures are designed to filter pollutants, control peak flow rates, and reduce the total volume of rainfall runoff. For this project, researchers at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) constructed demonstration-level BMPs at two high profile locations on the UNH Campus: The UNH Stormwater Center and the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory. Self-guided descriptions of and outreach material for the three innovative storm water management BMP’s were installed at each site. Students, faculty and regional stakeholders were introduced to the LID technologies through an outreach and education program. Finally, the researchers estimated the runoff volume reduction and pollutant load reduction as a result of the BMP’s

(2006) NH Department of Environmental Services Shellfish Program Activities, January 2005-December 2005, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) Shellfish Program activities in 2005 are described. Sanitation studies in accordance with National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines were conducted. Targeted inspections and sampling of previously identified sources was emphasized to complete sanitary surveys for selected growing areas or to collect data needed for annual and triennial sanitary survey reviews. Sanitary surveys were completed for the Bellamy River and Little Bay. Monitoring activities included ambient water sampling for fecal coliform bacteria, post-rainfall tests, sewage release problem area sampling, shellfish biotoxin monitoring, and post-severe weather testing. As in the past, NHDES involved citizen participation in its activities, including the Great Bay Coast Watch. Plans for next year's work include completion of ongoing studies on the Upper Piscataqua River, Cocheco River, Salmon Falls River, and Hampton/Seabrook Harbor.

(2006) NH Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Laboratories Shellfish Program 2005, Finnigan Results from water sample testing and shellfish tissue analyses conducted by the New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) are reported. In 2005, DHHS tested 836 water samples, 101 shellfish tissue samples for bacteria, and 87 shellfish tissue samples for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The 2005 PSP bloom event required a 33% increase in the number of samples taken. In addition, the wet weather in 2005 led to an additional 149 samples being received and processed. All samples received were successfully tested. For 2006 DHHS will continue to test PSP levels and provide analyses of shellfish growing water samples for fecal coliform bacteria, salinity, and pH.

(2006) NHEP Buffer Outreach Final Report, Castallo, J In 2006, NHEP completed a buffer characterization project, buffer protection presentaion, buffer brochure, one presentation , buffer web page, GRANIT buffer data layer/mapper, three additional projects related to buffer protection: Southern New Hampshire Planning Commission (SNHPC), Candia, and Deerfield. The NHEP Community Technical Assistance Program focused on buffers in New Durham. The NHEP provided buffer protection assistance through Rockingham Planning Commission and Strafford Regional Planning Commission

(2006) NHEP Data Management Plan, Trowbridge, P The NHEP Data Management Plan contains protocols for data reporting to the NHEP to facilitate data integration. The protocols are considered contract requirements for NHEP monitoring programs and recommended guidelines for other partners. This plan also includes protocols for conducting quality assurance tests on water quality data to ensure the integrity of the NHEP indicators.

(2006) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Critical Habitats and Species 2006, Trowbridge, P NHEP describes the status and trends of critical habitats and species in New Hampshire's estuaries. The report contains data and analysis for salt marshes, eelgrass, unfragmented forest blocks, fish, lobsters, waterfowl, and restoration projects. Some of the conclusions from the report include: the extent of the salt marsh mapped in 2004 was 5,554 acres, and phragmites covered 133 acres of salt marsh area in 2004; eelgrass coverage in the Great Bay has been declining since 1996 except for one good year in 2001, and between 1992 and 2003, the eelgrass biomass in Great Bay declined by 71%; unfragmented forest blocks greater than 250 acres constituted 51% of the land area in New Hampshire's coastal watershed in 2001; the populations of critical species of juvenile finfish, anadromous fish, lobster, and waterfowl remain similar to previous observation; and excellent progress has been made toward the goal of restoring 300 acres of salt marsh by 2010. Also, oyster and eelgrass restorations are proceeding, but more slowly.

(2006) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Water Quality 2006, Trowbridge, P NHEP describes the status and trends of water quality in New Hampshire's estuaries. The report contains data and analysis for bacteria indicators, toxic contaminants, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. Some of the conclusions from the report are as follows: shellfish harvesting opportunities are still restricted due to bacteria contamination in the estuary, particularly after rain storms; dry-weather bacteria concentrations have decreased over the past 17 years, but the concentrations have remained relatively constant over the past decade; the number of advisories at tidal and freshwater beaches in the coastal watershed is increasing; available data on shellfish tissue (mussels, clams, oysters) show that the concentrations of toxic contaminants in the tissue are below FDA guidelines; a small percentage (12%) of the estuary sediments contain toxic contaminants at concentrations that might affect the benthic community; comparisons to historical data show that dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have increased in Great Bay by 59% in the past 25 years; and dissolved oxygen concentrations consistently fail to meet the state water quality standards in the tidal tributaries but not in the larger embayments.

(2006) NHEP Year 11 Work Plan, Hunter, J This Work Plan represents the eleventh year of NHEP activities and is developed with input from NHEP’s four project teams. The Plan describes recent accomplishments and projects to be undertaken beginning in 2007 to implement the NHEP Management Plan. Also included are a list of ongoing projects, a summary of meetings and milestones from the last year, relevance of activities to the Clean Water Act programs, and the overall budget. The NHEP Management Committee approved this plan during the June 13, 2006 meeting.

(2006) NROC Coordination and Program Delivery, Stone, A & Mitchell, F The Universtiy of New Hampshire describes the 2006 NROC activities. The group worked with two new client communities (Rollinsford and Fremont) and continued to work with four previous NROC communities (Wakefield, Deerfield, New Durham and Strafford). As a result of 2006 activities organizers report that the NROC approach continues to be an effective strategy, however, as communities become more sophisticated in their approaches, NROC needs to broaden its focus and provide a wider range of programs. They also concluded that an extended period of follow-up assistance is needed and funding for community projects continues to be a strong motivating factor for communities.

(2006) Oyster Reef Restoration Project for the City of Dover, Grizzle, R et al. The University of New Hampshire and the City of Dover describe a project to restore formerly productive oyster bottom in two areas, the Bellamy River and Pomeroy Cove (Piscataqua River). Site surveys found substantial amounts of "shell bottom" (but only two live oysters) along a 1.2 km stretch of the Bellamy, and no oyster bottom at the Pomeroy Cove site. Hence, restoration efforts were designed only for the Bellamy. The primary reef restoration method chosen was “spat seeding" onto the existing shell bottom, which involves deposition of spat (young oysters) attached to shell substrate produced by remote setting. Larvae from native Great Bay oysters were set in tanks at UNH's Jackson Estuarine Laboratory in July 2005, and held on a nursery raft at JEL until reef construction in November 2005. Approximately 300,000 spat-on-shell were used to construct 12 "minireefs" (total surface area ~0.1 acre) within a 1.5-acre overall restoration area. Nine months after reef construction, 32,000 live oysters remained on the mini-reefs and no live oysters were found in adjacent natural reef areas. When considering only the 0.1 acre area covered by the mini-reefs, live oysters occurred at 64/m2, which is similar to oyster densities in other areas in Great Bay. When considering the entire 1.5-acre restoration area, live oysters were at ~4/m2. The entire 1.5-acre area was considered "restored" in the short-term. Longer-term restoration success will be dependent upon successful natural recruitment to the minireefs as well as the adjacent bottom areas. Diver observations in July 2006 indicated that very little oyster shell (other than what was put out with the spat in November 2005) remained in the restoration area. This suggests that longer-term restoration success may require placement of additional shell onto the bottom.

(2006) Reef Structure Alternatives for Restoration of Oyster in New Hampshire, Grizzle, et al The University of New Hampshire describes a study that compared previous performance (survival, growth, natural spat set) of replicate "large" (6 m diameter) constructed reefs to replicate clusters of "small" (3.2 m diameter) constructed reefs ( an example of the general ecological "SLOSS" (single large or several small) question applied to oyster restoration). Early reef performance (dependent variables: oyster density, mean shell height, and spat [oysters < 40 mm shell height] density) did not differ significantly for the "large" constructed reefs compared to "small" in any of the three dependent variables measured four times over the duration (20 months) of the experiment. Both types of constructed/restored reefs, however, differed substantially and significantly from both types of controls (exposed to harvest and unharvested) in oyster density and spat set, with mean densities of 3 to 6 times higher on the constructed reefs. A total of 1.25 acres of bottom area was considered "restored" oyster bottom at the completion of the project. Including direct and match costs for the present project, it was estimated that restoring 1 acre of oyster bottom using spat seeding would require about $54,800. A recommended protocol for design of reef restoration projects that involve spat seeding is provided.

(2006) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuaries 2005, Trowbridge, P The NH Department of Environmental Services (DES) describes the collection of mussels at 4 sampling locations in New Hampshire during the 2005 sampling season. Oyster and clams were collected at one station each. Mussel samples were collected from Portsmouth Harbor (StationID “MECC”), Dover Point (NHDP), Hampton-Seabrook Harbor (NHHS) and North Mill Pond (NHNM). Oyster samples were collected from Nannie Island in Great Bay (NHNI) and clam samples were collected from Middle Ground in Hampton-Seabrook Harbor (NHMG). All field sampling and sample processing was conducted as outlined in Sowles et al. (1997). The samples were analyzed for inorganic contaminants by the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, and for organic contaminants by the Environment Canada, ECB Laboratory in Moncton, New Brunswick. The data were quality assured by the individual laboratories. In addition, DES conducted four quality assurance tests on the data. The laboratory results for the 2005 samples are presented in the report. The conclusions that can be drawn from DES quality assurance tests are that the 2005 mussel tissue data appear to be valid with some caution for the PAH results at NHDP. However, clam and oyster tissue data for PAHs may not be valid. DES should work with Environment Canada laboratory to determine whether the PAH data at NHDP, NHNI and NHMG should be rejected.

(2006) Shoreland Buffer Module for GRANIT Data Mapper, Rubin, F & Justice, D The Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire enhanced the GRANIT Data Mapper (http://mapper.granit.unh.edu) by incorporating data describing shoreline buffers in New Hampshire. The project supports an ongoing, comprehensive New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) outreach initiative that seeks to educate municipal decision-makers about the importance of stream buffers in preserving water quality in coastal New Hampshire. It complements these existing outreach efforts by allowing coastal managers, local land use boards, and the general public to readily visualize the spatial extent of current and/or proposed shoreline regulations in their community. Using standard GIS tools, six concentric buffers incrementing in 50’ widths from 50’ to 300’ were generated around stream and shoreline features. The resulting buffers were merged with the GRANIT surface water data, and acreage by town and sub-watershed was calculated for each buffer category.

(2006) Soft-Shell Clam (Mya Arenaria) Distribution & Abundance at Selected Sites in the Great Bay Estuary, Grizzle, R The results of a soft-shell clam distribution and abundance survey in six locations of the Great Bay Estuary by the Jackson Estuarine Laboratories (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire are reported. The six sites were those left unstudied by previous population surveys, and the main goal of the project was to complete the coverage of the Great Bay Estuary. Factors such as differences in sediment types, number of siphon holes, and number of empty shells were recorded at the different sites. Based on the low number of both live clams and empty shells, it was concluded that none of the six areas were productive clamflats, nor had they been for some time. JEL recommended future studies to include more focused observations on characteristics of productive clamflats (sediment type in particular) as well as predation.

(2006) Spatial Patterns of Marine Larvae as Indicators of Incipient Invasions in Great Bay, NH, Byers, J & Griffen The University of New Hampshire Zoology Department reports on a study designed to collect the baseline data necessary to establish patterns and make comparisons to future conditions. Researchers collected larvae on artificial settlement substrates at six sites within the Great Bay Estuary and at an adjacent coastal site during ice-free months since July 2002. The report gives a brief description of the results of this monitoring program to determine the species composition, spatial patterns, and timing of invertebrate settlement within the Great Bay. This report specifically includes data from April 2005 to June 2006, the portion of the project funded by NHEP.

(2006) Stewardship Plan for Four Conservation Easements Held by the Town of Newfields, NH, Taylor & Associates Jeffery H. Taylor & Asssociates present stewardship plans for four conservation easements held by the Town of Newfields. Each property was visited by the contractor and a local volunteer and best management practices and monitoring reccomendations for the properties were provided. Each property plan includes a property map, site charactistics, pre-exisiting issues, idiosyncrasies of easement deed, and stewardship reccomendations.

(2006) Stream Buffer Characterization Study, Rubin, Justice The Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire conducted a characterization of 2nd order and higher streams within the Piscataqua/Coastal Basin of New Hampshire. GIS and remote sensing data archived in the NH GRANIT database were used to map a suite of anthropogenic factors, including land use, impervious surface coverage, and transportation infrastructure, within standard buffers around each stream segment. These factors were then analyzed to produce a categorical indicator representing the status of each stream. The indicator categories, established with guidance from a project advisory committee, reflect the degree to which each buffer was impacted by human activity. Based on the percent of buffer land area mapped as developed (including gravel pits and quarries), transportation, or agricultural land (including old fields and other cleared land), the categories are as follows: Category Decision Rule Intact: <10% impacted Mostly Intact: 10-25% impacted Somewhat Modified: 25-50% impacted Altered: >50% impacted Project results were presented on community-based, large format maps displaying the stream characterizations and the corresponding acreage tables. In addition, the data have been made available as digital data layers archived in the GRANIT database. These results deliver a valuable resource to the coastal management community by establishing a baseline for developing and prioritizing future stream level protection measures.

(2006) Supplemental Community Inserts to the 2006 State of the Estuaries Report, Kellam, D Supplemental materials to the 2006 State of the Estuaries Report (06SOTE) were created by the NHEP for each of the 42 coastal watershed communities. The materials included data on community population, impervious surface coverage in acres, impervious surface in % of land, acres of impervious surface per person, and key conservation areas that were identified in the Land Conservation Plan for NH's Coastal Watershed, TNC. Also general information was provided on protecting critical habitats, designating prime wetlands, updating buffer regulations, adopting regulations to reduce sprawl, and promoting effective stormwater management. The format for the material is a large bookmark that sticks out of the top of the 06SOTE and clearly indicates which town the data is describing. A 47 bookmarks were printed for each coastal watershed community (1974 total). Copies were inserted in 06SOTEs and those were send to all members the conservation commissions and planning boards in the coastal watershed communities and their libraries.

(2006) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Nelson Two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) are known to be present in Great Bay oysters. With funds provided by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP), the Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, (NHF&G) assessed the presence and intensity of both disease conditions in oysters from Oyster River, Adams Point, Woodman Point and Squamscott River within the Great Bay estuarine system. Collected oysters were cleaned of attached epifauna and shipped to Rutgers University, Haskins Shellfish Research Laboratory, for testing.Histological examination for other endoparasites was also conducted on Great Bay oysters. The year 2005 oyster tests show continued presence of MSX in Great Bay. Dermo was seen for the fourth successive year after a near five year absence in oysters. Also present but of unknown pathogenicity are ciliate produced xenomas in gill tissue. The report contains three recommendations. First, this testing program should continue with samples from major oyster beds within the Great Bay system. Second, movement of oysters from bed to bed within the Great Bay system should be discouraged as it may lead to distribution of infective stages of Dermo. MSX is not yet known to be transmitted oyster to oyster but lacking clear evidence of the exact means of transmission, it still seems prudent to discourage oyster movement throughout the area. Third, the effect of ciliate xenomas should be further studied.

(2006) The Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed, TNC The Nature Conservancy, in partnership with the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, Rockingham Planning Commission and Strafford Regional Planning Commission, identify conservation priorities throughout the NH coastal watersheds using existing data on significant natural resource features, predictive GIS modeling, existing conservation plans, and local expert and public review. The Plan includes several natural resource maps of the NH coastal watersheds, including forest ecosystems, freshwater systems, coastal and estuarine resources, critical plant and wildlife habitat, and conservation focus areas. Appendices of the plan include a matrix of existing conservation plans; model conservation overlay district and wildlife habitat checklist; rare plant & animal species, exemplary natural communities and exemplary ecological systems documented in the coastal watersheds; and contact information for land conservation organizations, tools, and funding sources. The plan offers regional strategies for maintaining diverse wildlife habitat, abundant wetlands, clean water, productive forests, and outstanding recreational opportunities.

(2006) Town of Newfields Wetland Evaluation Report, West, M The Town of Newfields describes a prime wetlands study conducted by West Environmental Inc. (WEI). Forty-four wetland systems were mapped and overlayed onto stereo color photographs taken on April 16, 2005. Individual wetland components were classified using the US Fish and Wildlife (Cowardin) classification system and field inspections occurred during the 2006 growing season. WEI recommended 22 of the 44 wetlands in the town for prime wetlands designation because they provide critical habitat, crucial wetlands function and recreational and educational opportunities to the residents of Newfields. The majority of the 22 wetlands are identified as highest value wildlife habitat of state importance in the 2006 NH Fish & Game’s Wildlife Action Plan. The report also includes a Power Point presentation explaining Newfields prime wetland candidates, as well as a mapping report with surface water resources map, Rockingham County soil survey, and aerial photos with overlays. WEI further recommends ordinance modification, wetland restoration of several sites, and a vernal pool survey to document suspected presence of spotted and/or Blanding’s turtles. WEI noted that a large vernal pool cluster found in Newfields is unique to southeastern New Hampshire.

(2006) Town of Strafford NROC Projects, Town of Strafford The three Strafford committees formed through the work with the Natural Resources Outreach Coalition in 2004 and supported by the grant award from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project have succeeded in furthering land protection, water quality protection, and managing growth in Strafford. The Land Protection Group contracted the professional services of Dan Kern of Bear-Paw Regional Greenways. His work streamlined the process for the landowners, and the Land Protection Group was able to celebrate the closing of two donated easements in 2006. The Water Quality Group carried out sampling of Bow Lake at two week intervals, the tributary monitoring provides unique baseline data. It was not only useful in the establishment of Strafford’s Wetlands Overlay District ordinance, but will be used in future Bow Lake studies. The Managed Growth Committee discovered gaps between the goals of the master plan and present ordinances. The Committee has worked to keep the public involved in the process of ordinance change and aware of the slate of proposed new ordinances for the 2006 ballot. Three new growth ordinances were passed.

(2006) Water Reuse Feasibility Study, Camp Dresser& McKee Inc The City of Portsmouth contracted with Camp Dresser & McKee to produce this study of the feasibility of providing 300,000 gallons per day(gpd) of reclaimed water from the Pease Wastewater Treatment Plant to the Pease Golf Course. Costs to implement such a project were estimated to be between $3.1 million and $4.5 million, depending on two municipal upgrade scenarios. An additional 80,000 gpd were considered for industrial use and estimated to cost an additional $1.1 million. The study concludes that at current wastewater treatment rates, the reuse of waste water in Portsmouth is not cost effective. The study does point out other benefits that are not captured with a straightforward financial analysis, such as the value of reducing the amount of nitrogen entering the Piscataqua River or the potential economic benefit of attracting high-water use companies to the Tradeport which will create jobs and increase the tax base.

(2005) 2004 Alewife Festival, ERLAC On June 5, 2004, the Exeter River Local Advisory Committee (ERLAC) held the 4th Annual Exeter River Alewife Festival along the banks of the Squamscott River in downtown Exeter. Over three dozen organizations exhibited and 750 people attended. Projects included newspaper advertising, article writing and printing of posters, palm cards and banners.

(2005) 2004 Coastal Conservation Outreach, Truslow, D Seacoast Land Trust (SLT) reports its efforts to boost awareness on coastal and wetland resource protection in 2004 and early 2005. SLT planned, advertised, and presented a series of outings and programs to increase awareness, knowledge, and interest in land conservation and coastal protection. Between June 8, 2004 and February 20, 2005, thirteen programs were delivered that involved 216 participants (some participants may have attended more than on program). The highest attendance (54) occurred for the Tools for Real Estate Professionals on March 30, 2005. Evaluations were administered at each program. SLT planned to hold the program up to two times more and found that making the programs free was great incentive to involve the community.

(2005) 2004 Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Grant Project, Marcoux, J The 2004 illicit connection identification and elimination grant program funded by the NHEP and administered by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) is described. NHDES issued a Request for Proposals through which projects were funded in Dover and Portsmouth. The Dover Public Works department corrected illicit discharges from four buildings, including one building that was discharging sanitary waste directly into the Cocheco River. In Portsmouth, intensive investigation in the Route 1 area using sampling, televising, and dye testing revealed an illicit connection to a stormdrain from a commercial kitchen grease trap. The pollution source was eliminated. Through the investigations, the City staff also found discharges of truck washing fluids to the stormdrain and issued a letter to the property owner to cease the illegal activity.

(2005) 2004 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project, Marcoux, J The 2004 stormwater infrastructure mapping grant program funded by the NHEP and administered by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) is described. NHDES issued a Request for Proposals through which the City of Rochester's mapping project was funded by the 2004 grant program. Interns were hired to conduct mapping using the City's geographical positioning systems (GPS). In total, 171 outfalls that entered major river systems, including the Cocheco, Salmon Falls and Isinglass, were mapped. The City also located 1,124 manholes and 1,845 catch basins. All structures were documented and integrated into the City's GIS, and digital photographs of each outfall were obtained. Through the mapping process, field crews noted the presence of thirty areas with dry weather flows for future investigation.

(2005) 2004 Great Bay Organic Nitrogen (PON & DON) and Light Extinction (PAR) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The results of a nitrogen monitoring study by the Jackson Estuarine Laboratories (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire are reported. Particulate organic nitrogen (PON), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were all monitored April through December of 2005 using methods approved by the Quality Assurance Project Plan by Jonathan Pennock and Phil Trowbridge. UNH researchers collected PON, DON, and PAR at up to ten existing sample sites in New Hampshire estuaries. In the future, JEL hopes to combine their data with that of sampling programs already in use for more seamless data. The project overall provided important data on nitrogen concentration and light availability in the Great Bay estuary.

(2005) 2004 Great Bay Water Quality Monitoring Program (DataSonde), Pennock, J This report describes the efforts of the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) to extend the Great Bay System-wide Monitoring Program to include "in situ" water quality assessments. The project took place at a station at the UNH Coastal Marine Lab at the mouth of the Piscataqua River and at a station in the Salmon Falls River. JEL used DataSonde, mechanisms which are programmed to obtain measurements of factors such as conductivity, salinity, pH, and temperature. They were recovered for data collection every 2-4 weeks. (The disk included with the report contains all the data findings.) JEL found that the in situ monitoring program provided important data on basic water parameters in the Great Bay Estuary. Combined with the NERRS SWMP DataSonde program, comprehensive coverage of the Great Bay Estuary was achieved.

(2005) 2004 Lamprey River Dissolved Oxygen Study, Pennock, J The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports their confirmation of the accuracy of DataSonde statistics for the upper region of the Lamprey River. Below-acceptable levels of dissolved oxygen had been documented in the upper reaches of the Lamprey River and JEL aimed to confirm the accuracy of these DataSonde tests as well as evaluate whether data was generally representative of the upper Lamprey River. They also planned to find out why the levels of dissolved oxygen were low. Surveys were carried out on four days throughout summer and fall of 2004 (July 16 & 29, and August 12 & 28.) JEL found that the DataSonde results were accurate measurements of Lamprey River's salinity, oxygen, and other core conditions. The data suggested low oxygen bottom waters during high tide resulting in large fluctuations in salinity and oxygen saturation. JEL concluded that a detailed study of the biological and chemical oxygen demand in the system would be needed to determine whether the low oxygen levels are a long-term concern.

(2005) 2004 Student Estuarine Research Project, Grizzle, R Portsmouth Middle School teachers, UNH researchers and community volunteers worked together to combine classroom lessons with field trips to monitor bird populations in South Mill Pond. Approximately 337 sixth grade students monitored an ongoing habitat restoration project in 2004. The students learned about ecology of coastal waters, scientific method, and bird identification. The bird-monitoring component of the project involved observing, identifying and recording data on birds in and around the Pond. The data collected in 2004 were compared to the 2003 (year of the first bird monitoring project) data. Similar numbers of birds and major bird types were observed in Spring 2004 compared to Spring 2003. However, during Fall 2004 many more ducks were observed compared to the Spring monitoring periods. Those involved found that the project took much more time than planned and recommended more comprehensive planning for future projects as well as allocating responsibilities to volunteers ahead of time.

(2005) 2005 Exeter River Alewife Festival, ERLAC The Exeter River Local Advisory Committee's (ERLAC) 5th Annual Exeter River Alewife Festival was held June 4, 2005, along the banks of the Squamscott River in downtown Exeter, and the results and activities are reported. The ERLAC met eight times previous to establish a list of participants and activities. Over three dozen organizations exhibited at the Festival and event organizers estimated approximately 600 people, including many children, attended the event. NHEP funded the printing of posters, brochures banners, and placement of newspaper advertisements announcing the event. NHEP Management Plan information available included: options for voluntary land protection; protection of shoreland from development; Exeter's relationship to the Great Bay; tips on septic system maintenance; and storm drains' role in water quality. Plans for next year include providing the press with draft articles on the event; a backyard wildlife event in the fall (per request of participants), and a NH Fish & Game table with information on fisheries.

(2005) 2005 Shellfish Indicator Report, Trowbridge, P This report contains data for twelve shellfish indicators tracked by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) in 2005. The data will be used for the 2006 State of the Estuaries Report. The results and interpretation for the indicators have been peer reviewed by the NHEP Technical Advisory Committee and other experts in the field. Indicators include shellfish bed/reef areas, densities, standing stock, spat fall, harvest, abundance of predators, and prevalence of diseases.

(2005) 2005 Shellfish Spotlight, NHEP The NHEP produced a brochure that included a summary of New Hampshire clam and oyster populations, as well as articles on oyster reef reconstruction, illegal clamming, clam research in Hampton-Seabrook Harbor, oyster predators, the NHDES Shellfish Program, and the recent opening of the Bellamy River harvesting area. The large format, tri-fold brochure was mailed to all shellfish license holders who allowed additional mailings to be sent to their homes (732), as well as all state legislators, coastal license vendors, NHEP team members, and key distribution areas such as Seacoast Science Center and NH Fish and Game office. This publication addresses outreach activities of four Action Plans from the NHEP Management Plan.

(2005) Ambient Rivers Monitoring in NH Coastal Watersheds 2004, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports their collection and analysis of monthly water samples from nine tributaries in the Great Bay watershed. DES Ambient River Monitoring Program standards were used in lab methods and samples were taken from freshwater portions of the rivers at the downstream side. Field measurements were made for dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and turbidity. Continued monthly monitoring along with improved accessibility of data were recommended by NHDES.

(2005) Bear Paw Regional Greenway-Comte Property Easement, Castallo, J NHEP granted Bear Paw Regional Greenways (BPRG) $50,000 toward the total easement purchase price of $210,000 for an approximately 134 acre parcel of land in Nottingham owned by the Comte family. The Comte property is located on Cooper Hill Road, with public access from Route 4 in Nottingham. The conservation easement is held by BPRG. The NHEP’s funds were matched through $45,000 in landowner donation, $155,000 from the Town of Nottingham, and a $5,000 grant from William P. Wharton Trust Fund for a total of $255,000. The highlight of the property is a five-acre black gum dominated wetland, where three black gums were reported by the USDA Forest Service Laboratory in Durham to be over 500 years old.

(2005) Candia Land Conservation and Well Survey Project, Stone, A The results of the Town of Candia's well survey and open space protection efforts in association with the Natural Resource Outreach Coalition (NROC) are reported. Based on estimates of a population increase of around 40% over the next few years, water usage and plans for future water needs were investigated. The Candia-NROC and the Nottingham-NROC developed a survey for well owners to determine water supply and quality issues. The survey was sent to 1500 well owners and returned by 275 (yielding a return rate of 18%.) Next, a training session, Developing an Effective Education and Outreach Campaign (by NROC), was developed and enabled five workshops for the public. The Candia Open Space Committee (COSC) and Conservation Commission formed a warrant article requesting $200,000 to replenish their conservation fund. COSC planned to continue to educate the public about voluntary land conservation options and the importance of open space protection.

(2005) CLCA 2004 Land Conservation Technical Assistance, Taylor, J The results of the Center for Land Conservation Assistance's (CLCA) attempt to increase the capacity of New Hampshire conservation groups to achieve permanent land protection are reported. CLCA provided 15 public education and training events, as well as numerous individual consultations, that reached about 350 seacoast area people coming from at least 27 of the 42 area towns. Over the course of the project, land trusts and towns accomplished permanent conservation of nearly 2500 acres of land. Towns voted to allocate close to $6 million to additional land conservation. CLCA recognized the need for continued financial and municipal support for conservation organizations as pressures to develop increase.

(2005) Comprehensive Conservation Outreach Plan, Town of Newmarket The Town of Newmarket reports its education outreach project on land protection, funded by grants from NHEP and the Natural Resource Outreach Coalition (NROC.) This project included the creation of three signs and two educational/information kiosks for the two recently acquired open space parcels. A third kiosks was repaired. All of the kiosks included informational brochures on conservation lands in the town and maps of conservation lands. This project also included deed research for the town-owned and conservation parcel database. Although the installation of the facilities was incomplete, Newmarket's previously disconnected data was pulled together forming a new system of recording, storing, and distribution. They planned to finish installation in the spring of 2005 and recommended that the town continue taking inventories of various parcels of different use (ex. Snowmobiling, hiking, etc.)

(2005) Educational Programming in Exeter and Dover on Board the Gundalow Captain Edward H. Adams, Bolster, M The Gundalow Company's educational programming in Dover and Exeter is discussed. The project took place between May and November of 2005. Collaborative educational programs offered onboard in these two towns totaled nearly 3,000 people including youth and teen groups as well as the public during community events such as the Exeter Revolutionary War Festival. Gundalow staff developed partnerships with eleven coastal organizations in both towns, providing meaningful expansion to the 2005 schedule. The Gundalow Company plans to return to both towns in the future having reached new age groups (from kindergarten-aged children to senior citizens) and also having received excellent attendance in both ports.

(2005) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary- 2003, Short, F The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports their eelgrass cover monitoring activities for 2003. The project involved: (1) mapping eelgrass distribution in Great Bay Estuary for 2003 based on aerial photography and ground truth; (2) acquiring aerial photography of the Great Bay Estuary in 2004; and (3) conducting eelgrass ground truth observations of the 2004 aerial imagery. In 2003, eelgrass distribution and percent cover generally increased in most areas of the Great Bay Estuary over 2002. JEL recommended continued annual monitoring, restoring eelgrass in Little Bay and the Oyster and Bellamy Rivers, wasting disease monitoring in the Great Bay Estuary, and creating a map of potential eelgrass habitats that does not include sites with other restoration activities in progress.

(2005) Implementation of the Dearborn Brook Watershed Management and Protection Plan, Walker, T The Rockingham Planning Commission (RPC) worked with the Dearborn Brook Watershed Committee (DBWC) and the Towns of Exeter and Stratham to implement the highest priority recommendations from the Dearborn Brook Watershed Management and Protection Plan. During the course of the project two workshops were conducted, several meetings between the two towns were facilitated and outreach materials were developed. The DBWC noted that in order to work together on protecting Dearborn Brook, Exeter and Stratham need to resolve disagreements concerning sharing water resources as well as their lack of communication. The DBWC recommended that Stratham and Exeter work together on public education and outreach, and discuss Dearborn Brook as well as voluntary land protection efforts.

(2005) Large-scale, manipulative field tests involving cultured and wild juveniles of the soft-shell clam, Beal, B The results of the first two experiments conducted by Dr. Brian Beal from the University of Maine Machias to test the effects of protective mesh netting and seeding on growth and survival rates for juvenile clams are discussed. The experiments were conducted at two different times of the year (November 2004-May 2005 and June-October 2005). From November 2004 to May 2005, clam survival was nearly 90% in plots protected with the smallest aperture netting, and this was three times greater than survival in plots protected with 6.4 mm mesh netting. Few animals were recovered from plots that were not covered fully with plastic netting. Overall, enhancement due to the predator deterrent netting was greater than 100-fold. Clam survival in the smallest size plots was significantly greater (by 30%) than those in the three larger sized plots. The growth rate of clams was 30% faster in plots protected with the smaller aperture netting. The experiment initiated in June 2005 will be repeated by Dr. Beal in 2006 due to mass mortality of those clams shortly after seeding.

(2005) Limiting Impervious Surface Cover and Protecting Water Resources through Better Site Design and Plan, RPC The Rockingham Planning Commission's (RPC) outreach and technical assistance involving impervious cover and water resources during 2004 are described. This project involved organizing a workshop (" Improving Site Planning and Site Design for Sustainable Development"), which was held October 4, 2004 in Durham, New Hampshire. The RPC worked with the Strafford Regional Planning Commission to send workshop notices to various environmental activists and committees in 42 coastal watershed communities. Fifty five people attended the workshop. The second part of the project involved providing technical assistance to the Planning Boards in the communities of East Kingston, Greenland, and North Hampton to increase their understanding of how impervious surface impacts water resources and how local land use regulations can mitigate this impact.

(2005) NHEP Support for DES Shellfish Program 2005, Wiley, M Results of Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) volunteers' assistance in collecting Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) samples at the Isles of Shoals are reported. Although scheduling of volunteers was impeded by a red tide event during May and June, volunteers still aided with sample transportation, contributing a total of 98 volunteer hours. GBCW staff also issued a press release about the project. The NHDES Shellfish Program showed an interest in continuing to utilize GBCW volunteers in the future.

(2005) NROC Coordination and Program Delivery, Stone, A The Natural Resources Outreach Coalition's (NROC) Community Assistance Program is described. NROC worked with three new client communities (New Durham, Wakefield and Deerfield) to educate them on open space lands protection. All three communities received NROC’s Dealing with Growth educational presentation, customized for each community, followed by a series of follow-up meetings in each community to address issues raised in the presentation and community concerns about growth and natural resources. At the same time, NROC continued to work with three previous NROC communities (Chester, Strafford and Candia). NROC worked with a total of six communities during the funding period. NROC found continued success in the presentation coupled with discussions as a form of communication to citizens. Continued funding toward implementing prioritized actions in individual communities was recommended.

(2005) Pickering Brook Salt Marsh Restoration - Phase II, Reilly Ducks Unlimited (DU), along with nine project partners, completed Phase II of the Pickering Brook Salt Marsh Restoration Project in 2005. Phase II involved restoration activities on the north side of the creek and included filling 13 man-made ditches with marsh soils excavated during the enhancement of four permanent pools on the marsh. Monitoring activities were coordinated pre- and post-restoration. DU recommended that phased, adaptive plans be used for any future salt marsh restoration as this provides both a time table and reasonable task division system.

(2005) Promoting Voluntary Land Conservation on the Lamprey, Exeter, and Squamscott River Corridors, Hart, B The Rockingham Land Trust's (RLT) community outreach project involving contacting local landowners along the Exeter, Lamprey, and Squamscott Rivers is discussed. RLT researched the names and addresses of landowners along the river corridors and within the target communities. Landowners were invited to participate in one of two free, land conservation and estate planning workshops. The goal of the project was to secure the completion of three conservation easements from participants in the workshops. Due to low landowner participation, this goal was determined to be unrealistic. RLT instead worked with prepared landowners to complete 4 conservation easements, for a total of 281 acres, within the project time period. RLT has completed one conservation easement on land on the Exeter River in Sandown, has two pending conservation projects (one easement and one fee simple) on the Lamprey River in Epping, and has one pending conservation easement on land in Brentwood. RLT recommended more innovative ways to encourage landowner participation such as tours of conservation easements or discussion sessions.

(2005) Public Outreach and Education Initiative, El Kouarti, J Results from a comprehensive public outreach initiative by Moose Mountains Regional Greenway (MMRG), designed to educate landowners, community leaders and the public about the importance of tools for preserving critical natural resources within the MMRG region, are reported. Two New Durham workshops, "Community Roundtable in Wakefield" and "Trail Day in Milton", were well attended by the appropriate target audiences. Participants completed surveys and rated the workshop quality and their knowledge of topics before and after the workshops. All news releases received excellent coverage in The Rochester Times and the Granite State News. In addition, reporters from The Rochester Times attended several MMRG events and presented a three-part front-page series on MMRG’s mission and goals. Four color brochures were mailed to more than 7,800 households within 4 communities as part of a membership solicitation package. The MMRG web site was also reorganized and updated. Each of the three communities involved (New Durham, Wakefield, and Middleton) now has plans for future conservation.

(2005) Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuaries 2003 and 2004, Trowbridge, P The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' (NHDES) shellfish tissue and water quality monitoring for 2003 and 2004 is reported. The NHDES coordinated the collection and processing of samples for Gulfwatch in 2003 and 2004 and managed subcontracts with laboratories to analyze samples for organics and heavy metals. NHEP funds were used for sample analysis from 3 sites in 2003 (Portsmouth Harbor, Dover Point, and Hampton-Seabrook Harbor) and 2 sites in 2004 (Dover Point and Hampton-Seabrook Harbor) to complement the baseline sampling conducted with Gulf of Maine Council funds. The increased spatial coverage resulting from the NHEP-funded analyses provides more comprehensive information for contaminant concentrations throughout New Hampshire's estuarine waters.

(2005) Streamflow Monitoring in the Salmon Falls River, Trowbridge, P The results of the Salmon Falls River stream gage are reported. The NHEP relies on US Geological Survey-operated stream gages that measure daily streamflow on most of the tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary to calculate nitrogen loads delivered to the estuary. Daily streamflow measurements were made at the Milton 3 Ponds Dam on the Salmon Falls River between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2005. These data were used to calculate the nitrogen loading for the 2006 NHEP Water Quality Indicator Report. Long-term funding for continued operation for this gage was not obtained. For subsequent years, streamflow for the Salmon Falls River will be estimated based on streamflow in similar river systems.

(2005) Summary of Coastal and Estuarine Monitoring Programs in New Hampshire (2005), Trowbridge, P The report summarizes the coastal and estuarine monitoring programs that provide data for the New Hampshire Estuaries Project indicators or for state water quality assessments. Each summary includes responsible organization, project information, and contacts. The list is limited to long-term monitoring programs that do not have an end date.

(2005) Surveying the Stakeholder: Understanding Public Perception of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, Smith, B The New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) commissioned The UNH Survey Center to conduct an survey to assist in the implementation and evaluation of the 2004 NHEP Strategic Communication Plan. An attitudinal survey of the Planning Board members and Conservation Commissioners in coastal watershed communities suggested that there is moderate familiarity and awareness of the NHEP, with 57% of respondents expressing some level of familiarity with the NHEP. Awareness of the NHEP Management Plan is fairly low with 31% of respondents expressing some level of familiarity with the Plan. Overall, 64% of respondents reported some degree of confidence (37% very confident, 27% somewhat confident) in the NHEP’s reporting of the status of NH's estuaries. Out of the 622 board members or commissioners in coastal watersheds, 152 returned the survey, a response rate of 24%. Surveys were received from 41 communities, and Rollinsford was not represented.

(2005) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Smith, B The Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department (NHFG) reports their testing on the presence and intensity of two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in oysters from the major beds in the Great Bay Estuary. Oysters were collected from Oyster River, Adams Point, Nannie Island and from an experimental oyster reef at the mouth of Crommet Creek. Collected oysters were cleaned and shipped to Rutgers University, Haskins Shellfish Research Laboratory, for testing. Tests indicated that MSX still exists in the Great Bay system and that Dermo was present at all sampled sites. The report cites nine years of data to comment on MSX and Dermo trends in the Great Bay Estuary. Also, the report notes that the imported oyster stock on the experimental bed showed much higher prevalence of infection and that large ciliate xenomas were observed in the gills of the tissue cross sections, especially notable at the Nannie Island site. It was recommended that the effect of ciliate xenomas should be further studied.


(2004) Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2002; Short, F.


(2004) 2003 Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Project, Marcoux, J Three projects by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) to eliminate illicit discharges in storm drainage systems are described. The projects took place in Dover, Somersworth, and Hampton and involved houses, apartment buildings, and commercial buildings. Methods included modifying plumbing to residential/commercial establishments, rerouting pollutant discharge to treatment facilities, and removing illicit connections from current drainage systems. Although NHDES had not yet measured the changes in water quality resulting from the project as of this report, they were encouraged by the progress made. They recommended continued funding to illicit discharge remediation projects.



(2004) 2003 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project, Marcoux, J The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports assistance they provided to coastal communities to develop storm sewer infrastructure maps in 2003. Grant projects were completed in Farmington, Dover, Durham, Seabrook, Somersworth, and North Hampton. The result was assistance to the communities in complying with federal Phase II stormwater requirements and alleviated financial strain on municipal budgets. Towns can increase pollution source reduction by removal of illicit discharges found using the maps. NHDES recommended future project completion deadlines to be prior to NHEP's final reporting deadline to allow enough time for a thorough report. Additional funding to coastal watershed mapping projects was also recommended.

(2004) 2004 NHEP Progress Report, NHEP This report summarizes progress made toward implementing the New Hampshire Estuaries Project Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) and evaluates the status of environmental and administrative indicators based upon management goals and objectives. The report is divided into two primary sections: (I) Status of Environmental and Administrative Indicators and (II) Action Plan Completion.

(2004) 2004 Support for Shellfish Program and Estuarine Education, Meeker, S & Reid, A The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) at UNH reports its volunteer involvement in the NHDES's Shellfish Program. The project provided transportation for PSP tissue samples for the NHDES Shellfish Program (eight trips from Star Island, 22 trips from Seacoast to Concord). Also included were two workshops: Marine No-Discharge Public Forum (8/12/04, 25 participants, 4 public participants) and Status of New Hampshire Shellfish Resources (9/16/04 - 32 participants). GBCW recommended continued support for their volunteer forums as they have found them to be an effective tool in involving the public.

(2004) 2004 V.I.P. Tours of the Great Bay Estuary of Coastal Decision Makers, Kellam, D In recognition of Estuaries Month, the NHEP staff conducted tours on board the UNH Gulf Challenger. Municipal planning officials (primarily planning board members and conservation commissioners) were invited on the tours, which were conducted on Sunday, September 19 (26 attendees) and Saturday, September 25, 2004 (31 attendees).

(2004) 2004 Water Quality Education Onboard the Gundalow, Bolster, M The Gundalow Company (GC) reports its annual water quality education program offered aboard the replica gundalow Captain Edward Adams. This project included the development of an expanded GC education program curriculum to include contemporary water quality issues and future stewardship responsibilities. The NHEP grant also supported the GC's efforts to bring the gundalow to Durham and Newmarket. GC noted the increasing importance of volunteers in the program and discussed establishing annual volunteer training sessions.

(2004) Availability of Ground Water Resources in the Piscataqua and Coastal Watersheds, Chormann, R The New Hampshire Geological Survey, along with project partners, completed initial tasks of the data collection phase of the overall, multi-year project. Data collection activities included data mining activities, well inventories, and water use surveys in the study area.

(2004) Conservation Easement Outreach Project, Wenninger Funded by the Natural Resources Outreach Coalition (NROC) Implementation Grant Program, the Ad-hoc Conservation Bond Subcommittee of Stratham produced and mailed out an updated full color tri-fold brochure on the open space initiative. The brochure was mailed to each resident household that provided information on the initiative and included achievements after approximately 2 1/2 years of work. It also provided funding to update workbooks provided to landowners that are interested in conservation easements.

(2004) Data Management Plan for the NHEP, Trowbridge, P This plan contains protocols for data reporting to the NHEP to facilitate data integration. Different protocols are applied to different types of data (e.g., chemical, geospatial, and biological).

(2004) Dockside Shellfish Aquaculture Project, Smith, B The results of the Aquaculture Education and Research Center's (AERC) spat collector education project are reported. The objective was to educate dock owners on "spat collector," devices deployed under a dock that are able to capture shellfish larvae, scallops, and oysters with minimal cost and effort. Two project volunteers were recruited with a total of 22 volunteers supporting the project. No oyster spat were collected during 13 plankton tows designed to evaluate targeted study areas. Researchers deployed five oyster spat collectors and 16 scallop spat collectors. No oyster or scallop spat were collected. Scallop re-seeding did not occur. Recommendations for future spat collecting included weighing the bags down to better fight the tide, and keeping them clean and free of bivalve mollusks and other creatures that impede collection. AERC observed strong community interest and therefore also recommended public outreach opportunities such as brochures and flexible training schedules.

(2004) Dover Natural Resource Mapping and Community Outreach Initiative, Bird The Dover Open Space Committee reports three activities they organized at three events in 2004 (Apple Harvest Day Festival Information Booth in Dover {10/2/04}, Fall Foliage Walk in Dover {10/16/04}, and Preserving Rural Character Through Open Space Subdivisions Workshop {11/15/04}.) Maps were printed and distributed at the Apple Harvest Festival and through direct mailings to Dover citizens. Approximately 900 maps were printed. The Open Space Committee conducted many site walks and took many photos of properties. A land conservation library and bookshelf was created in the Dover Planning Department.

(2004) Ecological Inventory of the Cocheco River Watershed and the Follet’s Brook Watershed, Zankel, M Staff from The Nature Conservancy, the NH Natural Heritage Bureau and NH Audubon Society documented six rare plant species, three natural communities, and 49 wildlife species that are considered a priority for conservation and management in 2004. The results of the inventory will help direct conservation activities of the Great Bay Resource Protection Partnership, local land trusts and towns by providing field data on significant wildlife habitat and ecological features. **NOTE: There are three individual .PDF documents online for this report. The one given is for The Nature Conservancy's findings. The other two are as follows: New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau: http://www.nhep.unh.edu/resources/pdf/ecologicalinventoryof-nhnhb-05.pdf New Hampshire Audubon Society: http://www.nhep.unh.edu/resources/pdf/folletsbrookand-asnh-05.pdf

(2004) Evaluating the Stormwater Treatment Performance of AbTech Industries Smart Sponge® Plus, Landry, N The University of New Hampshire and the NH Department of Environmental Services evaluated the ability of AbTech’s Smart Sponge® Plus to remove fecal-borne bacteria from stormwater in a storm drainage system located in Seabrook, New Hampshire. The Smart Sponge® Plus was installed into a water quality inlet and samples were collected from influent (pre-treatment) and effluent (post-treatment) for analysis of bacterial concentrations and loadings during 15 storm events from September 3, 2003 to May 24, 2004, excluding winter months. Flow-weighted composite samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci to determine if concentrations were lowered as stormwater passed through the Smart Sponge® Plus material. In most cases, bacterial concentrations were reduced within the treatment system, but to varying degrees. The overall load reductions for the bacterial indicators were 50.3% for fecal coliforms, 51.3% for Escherichia coli and 43.2% for enterococci. Overall, the observed reductions in bacterial concentrations in post-treatment stormwater would still result in discharge of elevated bacterial levels that would continue to limit uses in receiving waters.

(2004) Freshwater Wetlands Inventory Outreach Activities, West, M West Environmental, Inc., in conjunction with Carex EcoSciences and NHEP, reports all the outreach activities for the Freshwater Wetlands Inventory of 2002-2003. With their partner groups, West scheduled and presented a PowerPoint presentation entitled "Freshwater Wetland Mitigation Inventory for Nineteen Coastal Communities." This presentation was customized for each town meeting to include two or three of the town's suggested mitigation sites with pictures and maps to illustrate the wetland's potential value and functions. NHEP staff attended 17 of the presentations. A NHEP press release generated an article on October 24, 2004 in the Portsmouth Herald.

(2004) Funding Sources for Key Water Quality Strategies, Craig, M NHEP's Water Quality Database contents as of June 2004 are reported. Two tables comprise this database: Table 1, which summarizes specific federal, state, and nonprofit funding programs whose objectives match Water Quality Action Plans from the Management Plan; and Table 2, which lists references, including web pages and electronic documents, which can serve as general resources for parties interested in implementing water quality protection and improvement goals. Information will be posted on the NHEP website.

(2004) GRANIT Conservation Lands Data Layer Update, Rubin, F & Phaneuf The Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at UNH reports its maintenance of the GRANIT Conservation and Protected Lands Data Layer. This data set contains a digital record of parcels of land of two or more acres that are mostly undeveloped and are protected from future development. Through the GRANIT Conservation Lands Data Layer Update project, current protected lands data were collected, reviewed, and processed for the NHEP study area. GRANIT staff contacted each community’s conservation commission to solicit updates. Concurrently, staff from the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests contacted the active land trusts in the region. Through this collaborative process, 235 tracts covering 6,997 acres were added to the database. In addition to new tracts, information for existing tracts was modified to incorporate any reported corrections. CSRC recognized increasing funding to towns for land protection and recommended maintaining records of transactions and assuring that spatial data is made available to GRANIT and the GIS community.

(2004) Laboratory Analyses of Water and Shellfish from Coastal Waters and Watershed of New Hampshire, Finnigan Results of New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories' (NHPHL) 2004 shellfish water monitoring bacterial analyses, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Analyses and Shellfish Meat Testing for bacterial contamination are reported. NHPHL's split-sample proficiency program (the only program of its kind, with much potential for growth) was used in testing along with National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines. The NHPHL stated that the coming year would include continued laboratory analyses for PSP and other factors during wet and dry periods.

(2004) Land Conservation Transaction Fund, Taylor, J The Center for Land Conservation Assistance (CLCA) reports their work with NHEP to develop the Coastal Watershed Land Protection Transaction Fund, aimed at provide matching grants to municipalities and land conservation organizations to cover transaction costs associated with protecting priority lands from development. Twenty-three grants were made to support transaction costs associated with projects that provided permanent protection for 1,158 acres in nine communities. Grant funds of $57,141 leveraged over $187,657 of additional transaction funding from 15 other sources. The value of the land protected is over $6.6 million. The CLCA recommended simplifying the reporting requirements for grants to make administering them easier.

(2004) Municipal Conservation Outreach and Technical Assistance, Taylor, J The Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests' (SPNHF') efforts to compile information and fund the protection of open land are described. SPNHF conducted media outreach and workshops, which reached 57% of all communities in the NH estuaries area. In addition, they compiled a guidebook titled "Saving Special Places: Community Funding for Land Conservation" [see 270.CLCA.02]. SPNHF recommends continued workshops and technical assistance in partnership with CLCA, UNH Cooperation Extension, NROC, the Great Bay Partnership, and other local conservation groups. Training for town activists is important as it keeps the issue in continued focus, as well as records of town open space funds.

(2004) Natural Resources Outreach Coalition: Coordination and Program Delivery, Stone, A The Natural Resource Outreach Coalition (NROC) reports the work of its Community Assistance Program during 2004 to provide technical assistance, education and outreach to coastal watershed communities in New Hampshire. NROC worked with three new client communities (Chester, East Kingston and Strafford.) At the same time, they continued to work with three previous NROC communities (Somersworth, Nottingham and Candia). They began with an initial information session (their annual "Dealing with Growth") for all boards and leaders and followed this with individual assistance through meetings, telephone, and e-mail. One-year plans were also formed with NROC's help for each community. NROC effectively motivated community leaders to take steps toward protecting priority land and water resources. They recommended continued financial support to both individual communities and their own training team to advance the education program.

(2004) NHDES Shellfish Program Activities, Jan -Dec 2004, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' (NHDES) Shellfish Program's activities for 2004 are reported. NHDES conducts a number of activities to minimize the health risks associated with consuming shellfish, and to continue to comply with National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines. Among basic program functions is a routine water quality monitoring program, which involved the collection of nearly 800 samples at over 70 sites in 2004, the results of which are used to ensure that assessments of water quality for all areas are kept up-to-date. Weekly red tide monitoring was critical for early detection of dangerous levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxin in offshore waters in August, leading a nearly one-month closure to all harvesting in the Atlantic coastal waters. A particularly useful sampling program has been the initiation of post-rainfall water and shellfish tissue sampling in conditionally approved areas. This program improved management decisions and increased harvesting opportunities in Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, providing data that drove decisions to open the flats on most of the 16 days that the harbor was available for harvesting. Sanitary surveys were completed for Great Bay, and are near completion for Little Bay and the Bellamy River. Surveys for Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, the Cocheco River, Salmon Falls River, and the Upper Piscataqua River have been initiated and are scheduled for completion in 2005.

(2004) NHEP Monitoring Plan 2004, Version 4- 6/30/04, Trowbridge, P This version of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) monitoring plan reflects recent changes and updates to data collection, analysis, and reporting methods used by NHEP to track and report its environmental indicators.

(2004) NHEP Strategic Communication Plan, Kellam, D The NHEP Strategic Communication Plan (SCP), which facilitates the implementation of Action Plans related to public outreach and education, is described. It focuses resources on communication activities that strengthen the organization's position in the resource management community. Branding elements are explored along with program descriptions and a draft survey for various interested parties. The SCP describes goals for the next three years.

(2004) On-Line Resource Clearinghouse for Rapidly Growing Communities, Seif, A & Ducey, M The Center for Integrative Regional Problem Solving (CIRPS) reports on their creation of a searchable database on the top ten issues of rapidly growing communities in New Hampshire. CIRPS worked closely with the UNH Research Computing Center for the technical aspects and hired two undergraduate students for information gathering in addition to their own staff conducting background research. The resulting website offers users quick access to a variety of valuable information, including 1) mission and services, contact information, and website links for organizations and agencies that can assist communities with these issues, 2) direct access to ordering information or links to the text of publications and other tools (such as CD-ROMs, other clearinghouses, seminars, etc.), 3) background and contact information for experts and 4) stories from communities that have implemented growth management or smart growth strategies, including process and outcome.

(2004) Oxford Avenue Sewer Extension Project in the City of Portsmouth, Landry, n &Rice The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports the City of Portsmouth's proposal and installation of a new sewer line at Oxford Avenue that had been failing. The construction took place in fall 2004. Grant funds assisted with the costs and the resulting line replaced the septic systems for fourteen homes that bordered the Great Bog and Pickering Creek watersheds. Areas that still need sewer service have been identified (Davis Road, which drains to Hogdson Brook; Jones Avenue, which drains to Sagamore Creek; and Pleasant Point, which drains to Back Channel) and funding to assist in their replacement will likely be requested.

(2004) Oyster Reef Mapping in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire - 2003, Grizzle, R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports their reef mapping project for the Piscataqua and Squamscott Rivers, containing two of the six largest reefs in the Great Bay Estuary not mapped. Underwater videography was used in the present study to determine the boundaries of the two reefs. One representative still image from each stationary video site was assembled in a systematic grid overlaid on the overall imaging area to provide a photomontage of bottom images for each reef. Results showed that no major changes have occurred on the reefs since the 1990's. JEL recommended videography for future reef monitoring as it showed great potential for future development and use.

(2004) Protecting Hampton Harbor Watershed Project, Degnan, T he Rockingham County Conservation District's (RCCD) support of sustained technical and communication assistance to the Hampton and Hampton Falls conservation commissions is reported. The project helped advance the implementation of two significant land and resource protection projects within the Hampton Harbor Watershed. The educational efforts on land protection, conservation options, resource prioritization, funding opportunities, and the public relations information designed to support the passage of two significant local open space bonds generated much enthusiasm in both communities. The project leaders believe that the Towns of Hampton and Hampton Falls have significantly expanded their conservation capacity through this project.

(2004) Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire Atlas, Research Planning Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps were created by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for use in oil spill response situations. The ESI maps include information on shoreline habitat and sensitive biological resources. The process for creating the new maps involved reviewing previous maps from the early 1980s, incorporating new information on intertidal shoreline habitats from over-flights and ground surveys conducted in October 2003, and interviews with expert in species and habitats across the estuaries, including input from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project's Technical Advisory Committee.

(2004) Summary of Coastal and Estuarine Monitoring Programs in New Hampshire (2004), Trowbridge, P The report summarizes the coastal and estuarine monitoring programs that provide data for the New Hampshire Estuaries Project indicators or for state water quality assessments. Each summary includes responsible organization, project information, and contacts. The list is limited to long-term monitoring programs that do not have an end date.

(2004) Summary of Freshwater Monitoring Programs in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed, Trowbridge, P This report summarizes the existing monitoring programs for water quality in rivers and lakes in New Hampshire's coastal watershed and makes recommendations for ways the New Hampshire Estuaries Project can coordinate these data to assist with managerial decisions.

(2004) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Nelson Two protozoan pathogens, Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) are known to be present in Great Bay oysters. With funds provided by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, the Marine Fisheries Division of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department assessed the presence and intensity of both disease conditions in oysters from Oyster River, Adams Point, Woodman Point and Squamscott River within the Great Bay Estuary. Collected oysters were cleaned of attached epifauna and shipped to Rutgers University, Haskins Shellfish Research Laboratory, for testing. Histological examination for other endoparasites was also conducted on Great Bay oysters. The year 2005 oyster tests show continued presence of MSX in Great Bay. Dermo was seen for the fourth successive year after a nearly five year absence in oysters. Also present but of unknown pathogenicity are ciliate produced xenomas in gill tissue. The report contains three recommendations. First, this testing program should continue with samples from major oyster beds within the Great Bay system. Second, movement of oysters from bed to bed within the Great Bay system should be discouraged as it may lead to distribution of infective stages of Dermo. MSX is not yet known to be transmitted oyster to oyster but lacking clear evidence of the exact means of transmission, it still seems prudent to discourage oyster movement throughout the area. Third, the effect of ciliate xenomas should be further studied.

(2004) The Impacts of Impervious Surfaces on Water Resources, NHEP This is a NHEP fact sheet defining impervious surface and providing guidance to communities as to how to reduce impervious surface coverage.

(2004) Wetlands Assessment, Inventory, and Prime Wetlands Designation Project in the Taylor River Watershed, Town of Hampton The Hampton Conservation Commission in conjunction with the Rockingham County Conservation District presents an inventory of a freshwater wetland system adjacent to the Taylor River in Hampton and Hampton Falls for Prime Wetland Designation by both towns. Public informational meetings were held to promote awareness of the NHEP Management Plan and functions and values of wetlands. Also, a New Hampshire Certified Wetland Scientist was hired to complete the wetland inventory. The inventory provided education and outreach to abutters and residents of Hampton to promote Designation at Town Meeting.

(2004) Wetlands Evaluation Project, El Kouarti, J The Moose Mountains Regional Greenways (MMRG) reports its involvement in selecting and evaluating wetlands within its six towns service area. Criteria were developed by MMRG, under the guidance of Blue Moon Environmental, the wetland consultant for the project. Selection criteria were applied to identify those wetlands in each town that exhibited the potential to provide exceptional function and value to their respective communities. A series of community meetings was held to explain the study and to solicit local input. Approximately ten wetlands were identified in each town; all were field-evaluated using the New Hampshire Method. All methods, data, and maps were compiled into town-specific user's guides and presented to each town. The MMRG recommended only studying three to five rather than ten wetlands at a time for a more realistic time frame and work load in future pursuits.

(2003) 2001 Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Grant Project, Donlon The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Service (NHDES) received funds in 2001 to administer grants to coastal municipalities to eliminate illicit discharges into their storm drainage systems. Three projects were funded under this grant. Projects in Exeter, Dover, and Somersworth involved eliminating numerous sewage discharges into storm drainage systems from houses, apartment buildings, and commercial buildings, as well as discharges to wetlands from floor drains in town garages. All of these efforts helped improve water quality in the coastal area by reducing pollution from bacteria, oil, grease, and heavy metals. NHDE recommended continued funding for illicit discharge remediation as well as financial assistance to emerging Phase II municipalities for testing. A more streamlined process to ease the flow of grants was also suggested.

(2003) 2001 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project, Donlon The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) received funds in 2001 to provide assistance to coastal communities to develop storm sewer infrastructure maps. NHDES created maps of outfall pipes in several towns and administered grants to coastal municipalities to map their storm drainage systems. Outfall maps were created by NHDES for New Castle, Newington, Portsmouth, and parts of Durham and Madbury. Funds were awarded and grant projects were completed in Exeter, Hampton, Newmarket, and Somersworth. Seabrook completed the first phase of a grant project. Durham and Rochester forfeited grants awarded to them because the work could not be completed by the project deadline. Upon observing this, a longer contract period (in addition to more funds) was recommended for future mapping projects.

(2003) 2001 Storm Drain Monitoring and Municipal Training Project, Donlon The illicit discharges detection training workshops of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) for municipal staff in coastal communities are described NHDES held two half-day training sessions in January 2003: one in Dover and one in Epping. Each training session offered four presentations from NHDES staff. Funding from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project paid for the printing costs of an illicit discharge detection and elimination manual, handout materials, and disks containing all of NHDES's illicit discharge monitoring data in the coastal watershed. Workshops were attended by 60 participants, the majority of which were municipal employees.

(2003) 2002 Coastal Municipal Stormwater Infrastructure Mapping Project, Jones, S The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports its issuance of a request for proposals (RFP) to all communities within Zone A of NHEP's coastal watershed in January 2002. The RFP announced the availability of funds for storm drainage system mapping. Grants were awarded to Portsmouth and Seabrook to complete mapping projects. Portsmouth completed field investigations which resulted in mapping of over 4,000 catch basins, over 1,000 pipe inlets and outfalls, and approximately 500 drain manholes, encompassing 90% of the city's storm sewer system. Seabrook hired a contractor to convert paper records into electronic data, use the town's April 2001 aerial photographs to obtain surface utility data, compare those data against the digitized data, and identify areas where information was lacking. The town then identified two priority areas where data were lacking (Blackwater River and Hampton Harbor) to focus their field efforts and gather missing data to complete maps.

(2003) 2003 Great Bay Water Quality (DataSonde) Monitoring Program, Pennock, J The extension of a water quality monitoring program already in play by the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory is reported. This program extends the National Estuarine Research Reserve System-wide Monitoring Program by adding another site at the Coastal Marine Lab pier and extending the duration of sampling at the existing station at Salmon Falls to the critical summer period when dissolved oxygen may decrease.

(2003) 2003 Septic System Mailing, Craig, M The new Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) reports on two mailings that were sent to shoreline property owners in the coastal watershed in 2003. The mailings targeted septic system owners in the NHEP's Zone A area with property that abuts tidal or fresh water bodies. Mailings were comprised of a cover letter, a septic owners file and guide, and a refrigerator magnet, flier, and window decal. The first mailing, sent in June 2003, went out to approximately 130 addresses in Durham as a trial mailing. The second mailing went out to 740 addresses throughout the rest of the coastal watershed Zone A area in July. Fourteen feedback postcards were received. Feedback about the mailing's usefulness was mixed. Several recommendations were made, but the most emphasis was on enhancing the mailing's educational content.

(2003) 2003 State of the Estuaries Report, NHEP This 32-page, full-color report communicates the status of 12 of the 30 environmental indicators tracked by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP.) Each indicator provides the reader with the associated NHEP management goal, explanation of supporting data, and some of the NHEP supported activities that help achieve the management goal. This report also includes two case studies, "Protecting Critical Habitat Around Great Bay" and "Managing Shellfish Waters in Hampton-Seabrook Harbor."

(2003) Ambient Rivers & Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuarine Watersheds 2003, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) received funds from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) to conduct monitoring activities in 2003 (in support of the NHEP Monitoring Program.) Included were ambient water quality monitoring in tidal tributaries and mussel toxin contamination monitoring as part of GulfWatch. The ambient river monitoring program involved water sample collection at nine sites from March - December. The GulfWatch program involved mussel collection at five sites; the NHEP funds were used for three of the five sites. NHDES recommended continued monthly ambient river monitoring to establish trends in river quality. They also suggested annual mussel sampling , semi-annual clam and oyster sampling, and increased funding to GulfWatch to assist with the high laboratory costs associated with testing.

(2003) Ambient Water Quality and Shellfish Tissue Monitoring in New Hampshire Estuaries - 2001 and 2002, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' ambient water quality and shellfish monitoring activities for 2001 and 2002 are reported. The activities involved water monitoring in tidal tributaries and estuarine waters and tissue monitoring of mussels, clams and oysters. The New Hampshire Estuaries Project's (NHEP) funding enhanced the efforts of existing monitoring programs. These monitoring activities were a direct result of recommendations made by the NHEP Technical Advisory Committee and the Monitoring Plan and were completed with the overall purpose of improving the understanding of water quality trends and the concentrations of toxic contaminants in shellfish tissue. NHEP recommended continued monthly testing to establish trends in ambient water quality as well as annual and semi-annual testing in mussels, and in clams and oysters, respectively.

(2003) An Education and Monitoring Program for an Ongoing Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project, Grizzle, R Portsmouth Middle School reports their efforts from March through June 2003 to monitor bird occurrences at South Mill Pond in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The project involved approximately 160 sixth grade students working in teams monitored bird occurrences and behavior as part of the community-wide program to restore the pond. To prepare for the monitoring, teachers and guest lecturers gave students instruction on the ecology of coastal waters, scientific method, and common birds of the area. A total of 1,079 birds were observed in or near South Mill Pond during the three-month project and about 30 different species were recorded. The project utilized 470 adult volunteer hours. The coordinating teachers developed a unique curriculum that included hands-on data collection, student journaling and the creation of a South Mill Pond Ecology student handbook.

(2003) Arsenic Contamination in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, Ayotte, K The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Service and the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, studied arsenic concentrations in private wells in southeastern New Hampshire. The following summarize the major findings: nearly one-fifth (19%) of private bedrock wells in southeastern NH contain concentrations of arsenic that exceed 0.010 milligrams per liter (the EPA standard for public water supplies); arsenic concentrations are similar in bedrock wells across Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties (however the spatial distribution of arsenic concentrations that exceed 0.010 milligrams per liter is variable and relates to geology); less than 14% of well owners have ever tested for arsenic. USGS recommended that well owners contact the New Hampshire Consortium on Arsenic by e-mail for questions and information on testing and health. (Various contact e-mails are given for different topics.)

(2003) Brackett Road Illicit Discharge Elimination Project, Rice The City of Portsmouth addresses problems with failing septic systems at five homes on Brackett Road and elimination of one direct discharge identified through Department of Environmental Services sanitary surveys. Upon completion of the project, all five of the homes were connected to new sanitary sewer systems and the pollution problems were addressed. Illicit discharges into the Back Channel Area from the five homes were thus eliminated. Based on the age of Portsmouth's sewer system, continued investigation and funding were recommended.

(2003) Characterization of Groundwater Discharge to Hampton Harbor, Ballestero, T An environmental research group from the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of New Hampshire assessed intertidal groundwater discharge and nutrient loading in Hampton Harbor in 2003. The study of intertidal groundwater discharge zones suggests that intertidal groundwater discharge is extremely limited in Hampton Harbor due to the presence of a large impermeable salt marsh. Numerous sites were located, and all but one had salinities greater than 21 ppt. With salinities that high, these sites were deemed locations of saltwater pumping rather groundwater discharge. Hampton Harbor is characterized by shallow glacial deposits akin to a barrier system coastal feature and has over 5,000 acres of contiguous salt marsh. A review of land use and land cover, for both of these settings showed a nearly complete correlation between the salt marsh and absence of groundwater discharge zones and a positive correlation with the residential/commercial land cover classification. Deeper offshore discharge testing was recommended as well as investigation of discharge from the exterior of the marsh for a possible saltwater wedge.

(2003) Dennett Street Exfiltration/Illicit Discharge Elimination Project, Rice The City of Portsmouth describes its efforts to address problems with sections of sewer and drainages identified by a sewer system evaluation survey. A sewer inspection video showed that approximately 700 feet of sewer pipe was collapsing along Dennett Street, allowing sewage to leak through to the storm sewer system. New sanitary and storm sewer systems were designed and constructed. Remedial work conducted as part of this project revealed a previously unidentified illicit connection to the storm sewer downstream of Dennett Street. Portsmouth concluded that further investigation for other such sources of contamination is needed given the sewer system's age.

(2003) Dover Growing Greener Initiative, Scribner The City of Dover's Open Lands Committee (DOLC) reports the Dover Growing Greener Initiative, a series of workshops focusing on open space topics. DOLC co-sponsored the workshops along with the Conservation Commission and Planning Department. Workshops were held on: Balancing Growth, Taxes and Open Space (60 attendees); Land Protection and Estate Planning (50 attendees); Smart Growth: Protecting Dover’s Quality of Life (53 attendees); and Conservation Subdivision Design as a Tool for Building Community-wide Open Space Networks (94 attendees). Two brochures and a display were developed to increase public awareness of open space issues in Dover. Numerous press releases have been written publicizing the workshops, highlighting the benefits of open space, and encouraging citizens to show their support for bonding money to protect open space. As a result of these activities, the Dover Planning Board voted to allocate $2.5 million for open space protection in the FY 2004 budget and an additional $2.5 million in the 2006 budget. Public support for open space continues to be strong as the budget moves before the City Council.

(2003) Evaluation of Effects of Wastewater Treatment Discharge on Estuarine Water Quality, Bolster The results of a two-year project by the NHDES observing and estimating the effects of Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) on estuarine water quality in the Seacoast region are reported. Nine WWTFs in New Hampshire and two in Maine were evaluated in the study, each included in a database of bacterial and nutrient concentration as well as discharge into the Great Bay and Hampton/Seabrook estuaries. Sewer infrastructure investigations were conducted and several concerns were reported. No significant nutrient impacts were found. A strong relationship was found between peak discharges and time of year (highest in March and April.) Overall, the present treatments are effective at minimizing water quality impacts from bacteria. However, concerns remained about sewage and stormwater infrastructure. NHDES stressed upgrading aged infrastructure in urban areas as the highest priority for improvement in the coming years.

(2003) Field Evaluation of Wet Weather Bacteria Loading in Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, Trowbridge, P During 2002, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) conducted two rounds of wet weather sampling in and around Hampton Harbor. Samples were taken from storm drains, tributaries, and harbor stations for bacteria and flow in order to calculate bacteria loads. This information was needed to prioritize pollution sources as part of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of bacteria in Hampton/Seabrook Harbor. The results of this study provide insight into the relative magnitude of known sources of bacteria to Hampton Harbor, and were used to develop the TMDL.

(2003) Field Verification of the Piscassic and Lower Lamprey River Watersheds Wildlife Habitat GIS Modeling, Oehler, J Results are reported from the New Hampshire Fish & Game Department's (NHFG) evaluation of GIS derived habitat models. Models for 18 species (five reptiles and amphibians, twelve birds, and one mammal) were evaluated to determine how successful they were at identifying habitat for those species. Model performance varied due to varying understandings of habitat needs or because insufficient GIS data were available. Even so, the habitat models resulted in the identification of 15 habitat patches that should be considered for conservation in Epping, Durham, Newmarket, Lee, and Fremont.

(2003) Freshwater Wetland Mitigation Inventory for Nineteen Coastal Communities, West, M This is a comprehensive inventory of nineteen NHEP Zone A towns as conducted by West Environmental, Inc. The overall goal of this inventory project was to empower local communities to protect and restore freshwater resources by providing them with data on potential mitigation sites. West Environmental, Inc. identified and mapped potential freshwater wetland mitigation opportunities, including restoration, creation, and protection sites, in nineteen Zone A communities. The project scientists selected six to ten sites per town for field evaluation.

(2003) GBCW Support for Shellfish Activities in 2003, Reid, A The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) reports its volunteer activities in assisting with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' (NHDES) Shellfish Program. GBCW again participated in plan implementation by assisting the Shellfish Program. Volunteers completed a variety of work tasks including mussel collection, sample collection and transport, and general field assistance. Volunteers helped implement the monitoring program for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, by collecting mussels from Hampton Harbor, transporting them to Star Island, collecting them a week later, and transporting the mussels to Concord for analysis. NHDES recommended GBCW continue volunteering and assisting in the Shellfish Program and also recommended flexibility of project times for both volunteers and NHDES's schedule.

(2003) GBCW Volunteer Training Enhancement in 2003, Reid, A The Great Bay Coastal Watch (GBCW) staff report their work with the Technical Advisory Committee to identify areas of the volunteer training that needed to be updated. The Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Manual was revised and reprinted and was also made available in CD-ROM format. GBCW also updated QAQC protocols and held four volunteer training sessions over the course of the year. They recognized the need for continued updating to preserve a high level of accruacy and precision of training materials and recommended funding to support this.

(2003) Laboratory Analyses of Water and Shellfish from Coastal Waters and Watershed, Finnigan The New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NHPHL) reports tests of 963 shellfish growing water samples for fecal coliforms in 2003. The salinity and pH were performed on 963 and 961 samples, respectfully. The NHPHL received 66 and tested 64 shellfish tissue samples for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxin in 2003. The NHPHL received and tested 120 shellfish meat samples for bacteria. All results were provided in tabular format to the NHEP. Future plans included continued testing for PSP, however budget constraints projected difficulty in continued testing of fecal coliform, salinity, pH, and meat testing.

(2003) Monitoring Reports in 2003, Trowbridge, P This report is an updated Environmental Indicator Report: SHELLFISH, published in September of 2002. During the fall and winter of 2001-2002, the New Hampshire Estuaries Project's (NHEP) Technical Advisory Committee developed a suite of environmental indicators to track progress toward the NHEP's management goals and objectives.

(2003) NATURAL RESOURCE MAPPING AND LAND PROTECTION PRIORITIZATION FOR GREENLAND, NEW HAMPSHIRE, Truslow, D The results of the Seacoast Land Trust's (SLT) work with the Town of Greenland to better identify land protection are reported. Using GIS mapping and analysis, natural resource characteristics were mapped and land parcels were evaluated to determine conservation priorities within the town. (One complete set of maps for each watershed included in report). Outreach activities were also carried out and planned to distribute information to town decision makers, landowners and citizens and to share the results of the mapping process. SLT planned to continue working closely with Greenland to assist with landowner contracts, transactions, and funding. SLT recommended that Greenland contact neighbor municipalities to work on protection projects that overlap Greenland's borders to help the entire area with future land use planning.

(2003) Natural Resources Inventory Mapping and Land Protection Assistance, Zankel, M Bear-Paw Regional Greenways (BPRG) improved Regional Natural Resource and Co-occurrence Mapping, and direct technical assistance with transaction costs to towns and landowners to facilitate the completion of lands and conservation easements in 2003. To improve these areas, BPRG developed natural resource inventory maps to display areas of need for protection. They also provided legal expertise and land protection outreach. BPRG concluded that the biggest factor in the continuation of land protection is outreach to community leaders and volunteers, and encouraged a broad level of outreach to be continued, from town attorneys to zoning boards.

(2003) Natural Resources Outreach Coalition Coordination and Program Delivery, Mitchell he Natural Resource Outreach Coalition (NROC) worked with a total of seven communities during 2003 to help educate them in a variety of conservation issues. NROC worked with three new client communities, Somersworth, Candia and Nottingham to achieve the objectives outlined above. All three communities received NROC’s Dealing with Growth educational presentation, customized for each community, followed by a series of follow-up meetings in each community to address issues raised in the presentation and community concerns about growth and natural resources. NROC continued to work with four previous NROC communities. NROC presented two educational workshops on land conservation and facilitated a discussion session for Dover, at their request. The NROC team provided continued assistance to the three Squamscott communities, Exeter, Stratham and Newfields, with their implementation grant projects. The follow-up assistance proved to be helpful in keeping the interest of volunteers and community groups. NROC recommended that funds continue to be made available to communities to enable continued education programs and natural resource-based planning.

(2003) NH DES Shellfish Program Activities, January 2002-June 2003, Nash, C The activities of the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' Shellfish Program for the period of January 2002 to June 2003 are reported.The National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines were followed to evaluate sanitary quality of shellfish waters; monitor the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and selected toxins; and support shoreline surveys as well as citizen involvement in the Shellfish Program. Water quality tests as well as shellfish tissue samples were taken regularly. Results showed that the program should be continued, and should also include testing for bacteria and PSP levels. In addition, tests should include sources of water pollution as well as rainfall studies to encompass the entire area's sanitation report, targeted to be done by the end of 2005.

(2003) NHDES Shellfish Program Activities, January - December 2003, Nash, C The NHDES Shellfish Program reports their annual activities to minimize the health risks associated with consuming shellfish in compliance with National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines. Nearly 800 samples at over 70 sites were collected in 2003. Weekly red tide monitoring was key to early detection of dangerous levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxin in offshore waters in June, leading a nearly one-month closure to all harvesting in the Atlantic coastal waters. The program's pollution source identification and evaluation program involved the collection of nearly 400 water samples under a variety of environmental conditions. A particularly useful sampling program has been the initiation of post-rainfall water and shellfish tissue sampling in conditionally approved areas. Sanitary surveys are well underway in Great Bay, Little Bay, Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, and the Bellamy River, while surveys have been initiated in other areas such as the Cocheco River, Salmon Falls River, and the Upper Piscataqua River. The Shellfish Program is on track to meets its general goal of classifying all shellfish growing waters by the end of 2005.

(2003) NHEP Coastal Scientist Activities in 2003, Trowbridge, P The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' work with the NHEP for 2003 is reported. Highlights include finalizing several indicator reports, developing content for the State of the Estuaries Report, coordinating the NHEP's participation in the regional Rapid Assessment Survey for marine invasive species, helping coordinate the State of the Estuaries Conference, managing and developing Quality Assurance Protection Plans (QAPPs) for NHEP projects, managing shellfish restoration and proposal review process, and providing support to the Shellfish Team and the Technical Advisory Committee. The one outstanding work tasks is to evaluate and update the NHEP Monitoring Plan. This work task had to be delayed for several months because it was a lower priority than other tasks. It will be completed by 3/31/04.

(2003) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Habitats and Species (2003), Trowbridge, P This report covers environmental indicators for critical species and habitats, habitat protection, and habitat restoration.

(2003) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Land Use and Development (2003), Trowbridge, P This report describes the environmental indicators for land use and development, including impervious surfaces and indicators of sprawl in the coastal watershed.

(2003) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Water Quality (2002), Trowbridge, P This environmental indicator report tracks progress toward the NHEP's management goals and objectives. The Water Quality Report tracks indicators for bacteria, toxic contaminants, and nutrients and eutrophication.

(2003) NHEP Monitoring Plan - revised March 2003, Trowbridge, P The Plan identifies environmental and administrative indicators for the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, including how data will be collected and analyzed.

(2003) Peirce Island Pool Discharge Elimination, Landry, N The City of Portsmouth, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, received funds to help eliminate filter backwash discharges from the Peirce Island pool. The discharge to the River was capped and the filter backwash is now routed through the new pipeline and pump system to the force main which connects to the Peirce Island wastewater treatment plant. By eliminating the pool filter backwash, a source of bacteria and chemicals that flowed into the Piscataqua River has been removed. The elimination of this discharge works toward the overall goal of improving water quality in the Great Bay Estuary watershed. It was recommended that similar future projects should be considered for funding as the process of replacing infrastructure is often necessary but very expensive for a town.

(2003) Pilot Conservation Commission Circuit Rider Program, Walker, T The Rockingham Planning Commission ( RPC) initiated a pilot project to increase the effectiveness of the three Conservation Commissions in the Exeter River watershed called the Circuit Rider Program. The Towns of Kensington, Kingston, and Sandown were selected based on their interest in the program and their need for professional planning assistance. Rockingham Planning Commission staff attended monthly meetings of each Conservation Commission to discuss and implement short-term and long-term projects. RPC discovered the main issues in Conservation Commissions' reactivity to be lack of time, lack of awareness of RPC's resources, and lack of support from local officials. In addition, RPC found that all three communities presented a lack of funding to staff RPC members permanently. RPC recommended applying for Target Block Grants. Finally, RPC recommended that towns' Conservation Commissions meet with each other to discuss how they are raising money to fund open space protection. RPC planned quarterly meetings to facilitate discussion between Conservation Commissions.

(2003) Protecting Wildlife and Significant Habitat in Coastal New Hampshire, Zankel, M The New Hampshire Estuaries Project's (NHEP) support for the Great Bay Resource Protection Partnership in 2002-2003 involved funding to support the Partnership Coordinator. The Coordinator's efforts were critical to the functioning of the Partnership and included: facilitation, information exchange, and coordination to promote land protection and conservation efforts. The Partnership held several informative meetings, including the Smart Growth Conference, meetings with representatives from several Seacoast cities, and a summary of activities to Senator Gregg. During the last year with NHEP's support, the Partnership was able to protect in perpetuity 17 tracts totaling nearly 600 acres in the following areas: Crommet and Lubberland Creek; Little Bay and Great Bay shoreline; Packer Bog; Tuttle and Ash Swamp; Bellamy River; and Johnson and Bunker Creek. The project resulted in signs for these areas indicating their protection (picture of signs within).

(2003) Shellfish Outreach Project, Smith, B The Aquaculture Education and Research Center (AERC) reports its efforts in promoting shellfish outreach programs to the public. AERC made over 300 contacts to promote the programs developed under this project, and gave educational talks to 40 different special interest groups, including camps, school classrooms, retirement facilities, and hobby clubs. Displays showcasing local research efforts with shellfish were presented at events like Portsmouth's Market Square Day, bringing the outreach message to an estimated 100,000 people. Newspaper articles detailing the conservation status of New Hampshire's recreational shellfisheries explained the safe and correct way to dig clams to a readership of 30,000 seacoast residents. Significant public interest was shown in the 'Clamming for Dummies' Workshop, with over 200 people wanting to attend the 20 person workshop. AERC planned to continue such clam digging workshops and recommended continued funding for a shellfish spat collection project as well as a teacher workshop.

(2003) Shoreland Property Owners Database Update in 2003, Craig, M The NHEP's Shoreland Property Owners Database was expanded and updated in 2003 for utilization with a mailing to septic system owners. A recommendation was made to develop new methods to obtain mailing addresses and identify septic system owners.

(2003) Spruce Swamp Protection Project, Degnan, T The results of the Rockingham County Conservation District's (RCCD) efforts to provide significant educational efforts promoting land and water resource protection for Fremont and Brentwood are reported. The land/water area included over 2,500 acres. Four conservation information workshops were conducted in Fremont. Results included support for the passage of a prime wetlands designation warrant article in the Town of Fremont for specific areas in and around Spruce Swamp. RCCD with the assistance of staff from the UNH Cooperative Extension and the Society for the Protection of NH Forests facilitated the formation of an open space committee in Fremont and a proposed $4 million dollar open space bond authority for all of Fremont, rather than focusing only on the Spruce Swamp. Brentwood passed a $2 million dollar bond open space authority in March 2003. RCCD observed that many communities do not have the funds to acquire technical assistance. They recommended continued financial support by NHEP and other conservation organizations.

(2003) Spur Road Sewer Extension 2003, Dover, NH, Peschel, D The City of Dover initiated a project that involved the connection of three homes on Spur Road that were experiencing septic system problems to a private sewer force main which is tied to the Dover sewer main. The City of Dover received a copy of the design, inspected the final construction for completion and managed the administration of the grant. Dover reported that the funds were both sufficient and well-used as Bellamy River's long-term water quality has been improved.

(2003) Squamscott Region NROC Projects, RPC & NROC communities ES-35A Exeter, A Special Place: For the project, a subcommittee of the Exeter Conservation Committee developed the initiative, Exeter - A Special Place, which involved a campaign focused on educating citizens on the importance of open space protection and ultimately conserving at least 800 acres in Exeter. As a result of the initiative, a $3 million bond for open space protection was passed at the March 2003 town meeting, with support from 73% of voters. In addition, an open space committee has been appointed by the select board to carry out the goals of the initiative. The Rockingham Planning Commission recommended looking for matching grants to build upon the $3 million as well as continuing public education efforts and working with the Town of Exeter to create conservation easements. RES-35B Newfields Open Space Committee: The project involved the Newfields Open Space Committee's (NOSC) activities to educate citizens on conservation options and estate planning and to finalize a natural resource prioritization for critical areas in the town in need of protection. As a result, NOSC initiated 3 conservation projects utilizing easements (for a total of 118 acres of land); and contacts have been made for additional land protection projects. In addition, the town now has prioritized land for future conservation efforts. The Rockingham County Conservation District recommended that NOSC continue working with landowners to identify land protection options, secure conservation projects, and keep up public awareness campaigns. RES-35C Stratham Ad Hoc Conservation Bond Subcommittee: The project involved the Stratham Ad Hoc Committee's (SAHC) activities to educate citizens on conservation options and estate planning and to create a natural resource prioritization and criteria ranking for critical areas in town in need of protection. As a result, the Ad Hoc Committee initiated several land protection projects, two of which were completed and protected 47 acres through easements. In addition, the town now has prioritized land for future conservation efforts. Rockingham County Conservation District recommended that SAHC continue initiating appraisals of land as well as work with interested landowners to protect their land.

(2003) Storm Drain Stenciling To Build Stormwater Awareness in NH's Estuarine Communities, Peterson, J The UNH Sea Grant enabled 12 storm drain stenciling projects in 2002 and 2003, which occurred in seven different communities in coastal New Hampshire. During that time, over 600 volunteers contributed 700+ hours participating in projects that resulted in approximately 1,330 grates being stenciled. A number of newspapers reported on the projects and one stenciling project was incorporated into a stormwater video produced by a coalition of towns working to spread the word about stormwater pollution. Partly because of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Phase II requirements, storm drain stenciling is anticipated to remain a popular activity for increasing stormwater awareness in communities. Stormwater awareness is of highest priority in the NHEP Management Plan. Sea Grant made recommendations for future projects that included a longer recruiting time before the first stenciling project, considering evaluation methods carefully, and being flexible with the weather.

(2003) Stratham Well Survey, Walker, T The Stratham Water Commission (SWC) collected and analyzed information on existing wells in Stratham to determine the approximate daily water demand for the Town and forecast future water needs. The survey was successful in creating a database of well information and raising awareness in well owners of well water as a finite resource that is their responsibility. SWC concluded that the data must be regularly updated to be a valuable resource in community water usage information.

(2003) Summary of Coastal and Estuarine Monitoring Programs in New Hampshire, Trowbridge, P This report summarizes the coastal and estuarine monitoring programs that provide data for the New Hampshire Estuaries Project or for state water quality assessment. The list is limited to long-term monitoring programs that do not have an end date, and information such as methods, location, frequency, and contact information is included.

(2003) Support for the 3rd Annual Exeter River Alewife Festival, Walker, T The Exeter River Local Advisory Committee (ERLAC) reports the 3rd Annual Exeter River Alewife Festival held on May 31, 2003 in downtown Exeter. The Festival attracted more than 600 people. NHEP funding enabled ERLAC and the Festival Planning Committee to print and distribute 50 posters and 2,000 cards advertising the Festival, purchase newspaper advertisements (ran 4 times in the Carriage Towne News, Exeter News Letter, and Rockingham News and at least once in the magazine Foster's puts out with weekend cultural events) and arranged opportunities for the press to learn more about the event. In addition, ERLAC members worked with area newspapers to write and print eleven articles highlighting aspects of the river and the watershed. ERLAC will continue holding the festival and submitting monthly articles to local newspapers as well as initiate inventory projects.

(2003) Technical Assistance and Outreach Program for Landowners and Municipalities in the Exeter River, Hart, B The Rockingham Land Trusts (RLT) initiated a project to increase awareness of the RLT and work with community officials and landowners to increase the amount of land protected by conservation easement. Five towns in the Exeter River Corridor were targeted (all of which had high projected population growth): Chester, Danville, Fremont, Raymond, and Sandown. The most significant results were two pending conservation easements, one in Danville (36 acres of managed forest) and Sandown (7 acres along Exeter River). In addition, Estate Planning and Land Protection workshops were presented in Raymond and Kensington that educated landowners on how to protect their land from development. RLT planned to continue the workshops and suggested that the New Hampshire Estuaries Project help facilitate discussion between grant recipients to more effectively distribute funds and prevent overlap.

(2003) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, NHFG New Hampshire Fish & Game (NHFG) reports on two protozoan pathogens (MSX and Dermo), widely distributed within the Great Bay oyster stock. Oysters were collected from four sample locations: Adams Point, Nannie Island, Oyster River and Salmon Falls River. The testing was performed at Rutgers University, and the methods for MSX and Dermo were tissue section histology and incubation of rectal and mantle tissue, respectively. Severity of infection and prevalence vary from site to site and over time at a specific site. The year 2002 oyster tests show continued presence of MSX at all beds. Dermo was seen after a five year absence in oysters from all beds except the Oyster River. Results show that although Dermo has become widespread, the rate of infection in the Great Bay area is low. NHFG recommends that this testing continue and that oyster relocation be discouraged as it may lead to the further spread of Dermo. (MSX is not known to be transmitted oyster-to-oyster yet, although tests are still being done on this subject).

(2003) Tracking Bacterial Pollution Sources in Hampton Harbor, Jones, S Results from studies of fecal-borne microorganisms in shellfish-growing waters in coastal New Hampshire are reported by the Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Escherichia coli (E.coli) isolates - or bacteria colonies - were obtained from water samples collected from 10 sites in Hampton Harbor year-round during both dry and wet conditions. A library of known E.coli isolates was created from 20 different potential source species in the NH coast watershed, including humans, livestock, pets, wildlife and avian species. A total of 249 isolates from the 20 known source species were used as a reference to identify sources for 390 unknown isolates from water samples taken from August 2000 to October 2001. Banding patterns for water samples and source species isolates were considered to be the same if there was 80% or greater similarity between patterns. Overall, sources for 62% of the isolates were identified. The results suggest the most common source is humans. NH Coastal Pumpout Program brochures were recommended to be distributed locally. Also, NHDES was looking into another potential pumpout facility location.

(2003) Tracking Bacterial Pollution Sources in Stormwater Pipes, Jones, S The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' test results of two of the 16 storm drain pipes monitored as part of the Hampton-Seabrook Harbor TMDL study are reported. The pipes were selected for microbial source determination using ribotype profiling. Earlier sampling analysis revealed that the two pipes contributed relatively large loads of bacteria to the Harbor. Samples were collected in October 2002 and analyzed for source species identification. Overall, source species were determined for 46 of the 59 (or 78%) isolates found from the samples. Of the identified sources, birds were the most common source (36%), followed by humans (20%), wildlife (15%), and pets (7%). Twenty-two percent of the sources were not identified.

(2003) UNH Great Bay Coast Watch Involvement in the NHEP, Reid, A The Great Bay Coast Watch's(GBCW) assistance for the NHDES Shellfish Program in 2003 is described. Volunteers conducted mussel collection for toxicity monitoring, water quality sampling and sample transport. Over 600 volunteer hours were contributed to work tasks. The GBCW recommended project flexibility to accommodate changing DES Shellfish Program needs.

(2003) Water Quality Outreach, Duffy, P The Town of Exeter reports their implementation of a storm drain stenciling project as part of an educational program for nonpoint source pollution. The Town completed three stenciling activities, with 64 volunteers, resulting in stenciled messages on 340 storm drains. The Town had better success with plastic, reusable stencils and spray paint than with disposable, hand-painted stencils. The Town also produced and distributed collateral materials such as litter bags, pocket ashtrays, flyers, door hangers, and t-shirts to complement the stenciling activities. The Town found that maps were important for volunteers' clarity as to which section of an area was assigned to them and planned to continue using these and other such tools as litter bags to clean up along the way.

(2002) An Assessment of Natural Communities and Significant Wildlife Habitat in the Piscassic Watershed, Zankel, M This report, a companion report to 260.TNC.02a, presents results from field inventories done by The Nature Conservancy. Conducted in Summer 2001, it documents significant plants and natural communities of conservation concern in the Great Bay region. The study aimed at: documenting wildlife habitats and rare species in selected areas of Piscassic and Fresh River watersheds; collect information useful in creating Geographic Information System (GIS) models; and informing the GBRPP of land conservation and protection activities. Information was gathered on soils, wetlands, and any natural resources in the selected area. An observation point ("OP") was selected at each habitat and New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory (NHNHI) methods were used to collect data. Enough evidence was gathered to possibly classify the areas as lower perennial riparian complex as defined by NHNHI. The combination of rare plants and the wetland and upland's large size make it very unique in the Seacoast area.

(2002) Assessment and Recommendations for Bull Toad's Pond at Great Island Common - Part II, Degnan, T The Town of New Castle in conjunction with the Rockingham County Conservation District (RCCD) reports an inventory/evaluation project of Bull Toad's Pond in New Castle, New Hampshire. Using existing historical data and wetland and stormwater analyses, RCCD determined the wetland restoration and ecological enhancements that would be most beneficial for the area. Results showed that salinity was fairly constant around Bull Toad's Pond, and there were not any nor'easters or other extreme storms. There was however a drought during the summer of 2002. New Castle, after receiving the results from the pore water salinity tests, planned to move forward with ecology restoration.

(2002) Community Conservation Assistance, Mitchell The Natural Resources Outreach Coalition's (NROC) Community Conservation Assistance project that includes presentations, a resource library, and conference is discussed. A total of 26 communities and 2 land trusts were reached by the Community Conservation Assistance project, including communities participating in NROC: Dover, Exeter, Newfields, and Stratham. The goal was to help these communities take action to sustain and protect open space lands critical to biodiversity and water quality. The primary method used by NROC was a series of presentations (Dealing With Growth) followed by a seminar for all interested parties to form action plans in their own communities. The project also created a library of relevant materials, now available at the University of New Hampshire in Nesmith Hall. In addition, the project established the first annual NH Land Conservation Conference, released publications, and coordinated town projects with NROC. NROC recommends that organizations such as the New Hampshire Estuaries Project continue to reach out to the community with water quality projects and initiatives as they found the response rate tends to be high.

(2002) Developing Impervious Surface Estimates for Coastal New Hampshire, Rubin, F Estimates of impervious surface acreage in 1990 and 2000 were generated by the Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire. Estimates were made for the 42 towns comprising Zones A and B of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project Area. The estimates were based on applying both traditional and subpixel classification techniques to 30-meter Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite image data. The classifications indicated that 4.3% (31,233 acres) of the study area was impervious in 1990, with an increase to 6.3% (45,445 acres) impervious coverage in 2000. At the sub-watershed level, the Portsmouth Harbor sub-watershed recorded the highest percentage of impervious surface acreage in both 1990 and 2000, with 19.8% coverage (2,310 acres) and 25.5% coverage (2,975 acres) respectively. Impervious surface acreage increased within the decade studied. It was recommended that the study be repeated on a 3-5 year basis, and the TM technique was said to be fit for future use. The release of educational materials including maps to illustrate the results were recommended as well.

(2002) Evaluation of Monitoring Programs for the NHEP Monitoring Plan - September 2002, Trowbridge, P The objective of this report is to evaluate the monitoring programs for indicators in the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) Monitoring Plan to determine if sufficient data are being collected for each indicator and to identify any data gaps. The outcome of this report is a list of recommended changes to monitoring programs and a list of follow-up research projects. These recommendations will be considered to develop the work plans for NHEP monitoring funds in 2003.

(2002) Exeter River Alewife Festival Publicity, Walker, T The Exeter River Local Advisory Committee (ERLAC) reports publicity activities they initiated for the 2002 Exeter River Alewife Festival. There was a positive response to all of the outreach materials purchased through the NHEP grant for the Festival. The Festival Logo also generated great interest and over 3,000 posters were distributed throughout the town. Unfortunately, horrendous weather kept the public away. Plans are underway for a third festival which will be scheduled for later in May of next year. ERLAC feels that the NHEP money was well spent and has heightened awareness of ERLAC and their mission, and of the watershed.

(2002) Highland Avenue/ Brown Avenue Tide Gate Replacement, Town of Barrington The Town of Hampton reports its work with NHDES to install a self-regulating tide gate off Highland Avenue to allow freshwater to leave the marsh. This was done in order to protect adjacent homes from flooding and allow tidal inflow to restore the area to health as a viable salt marsh. The objective for the project was two-fold; in addition to providing adequate freshwater runoff, restoration of the salt marsh was needed to eliminate invasive plant species and reduce mosquito populations. NHDES upgraded the size of the culverts crossing under Brown Avenue and Highland Avenue and installed a self-regulating tide gate. Hampton Public Works will monitor the tide gate to assure no blockages from debris occur. Hampton planned on having similar systems installed in other communities to reduce flooding and increase salt marsh nourishment.

(2002) Innovative Stormwater Treatment Technologies: Best Management Practices Manual, Jones, S The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services presents a manual which provides innovative stormwater treatment technology information for developed areas state-wide. It contains detailed product information including function, installation, operation and maintenance, and relative cost, as well as decision-making criteria to help in determining the most efficient BMP system for specific site conditions. The technologies in the manual are primarily for use in already-developed urban areas where traditional stormwater treatments cannot be used due to space constraints.

(2002) Juvenile Clam Mortality Study at Three Intertidal Flats in Hampton Harbor, New Hampshire, Beal, B A series of benthic surveys concerning the decreasing adult clam population were conducted at three Hampton Harbor flats (Brown’s Flat, Common Island, and Middle Ground) by the University of Maine at Machias. The studies were focused on the high mortality rate of yearling clams (age 7-12 months, 26-50 mm SL) as observed by harvesters. Two manipulative field experiments were conducted at each of the three intertidal sites to address some of these factors. A generalized completely randomized block design was employed from November 2001 to March 2002 and from March 2002 to July 2002 to determine the influence of tidal height, stocking density, predator exclusion, and spatial variation on the growth and survival of cultured (hatchery-reared) juveniles of Mya. In addition, information on wild spat was collected. Results suggest that winterkill due to ice and storms is minimal, but that clam losses due to physical scouring of the sediments and predators was relatively high. To help deter clam loss, flexible, plastic nets will aid in keeping predators away. In addition, experiments concerning the effect of harvesting on juvenile clams and longer term studies on clam growth should be initiated.

(2002) Laboratory Analyses of Water and Shellfish from Coastal Waters and Watershed of New Hampshire, Finnegan The New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NHPHL) supplemented efforts to monitor for the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in the state's shellfish resources by providing laboratory analyses of shellfish samples from two sites in coastal New Hampshire. The NHPHL received and tested 49 shellfish tissue samples for PSP toxin in 2002. The samples were also tested for any other bacterial contamination, salinity, and pH. The NHPHL maintained and provided all analytical results in hard copy and in a computerized database to the Department of Environmental Services' Shellfish Program for inclusion in their final report to the New Hampshire Estuaries Project. The Department of Health and Human Services (which NHPHL is a sub-sector of) recommended continued PSP testing as well as sanitary meat fecal contamination testing during both wet and dry conditions throughout the next year.

(2002) Lamprey and Oyster River Watersheds River Stewardship Program, Watkins The Lamprey and Oyster River Watershed Associations report their project which provided hands-on land management information to improve landowner stewardship activities and overall water quality. A series of public workshops were lead by specialists in water quality, non-point source pollution, and wildlife ecology. One general session was held at which a slide show was given and discussion facilitated, followed by three land use specific field workshops: urban/suburban, forest, and agriculture. Workshop participants received stewardship workbooks with general information as well as tips specific to their property type. Participants provided feedback, including activities they would do differently on their property as a result of the workshop, via an evaluation form.

(2002) Natural Resource Mapping and Land Protection: Sagamore Creek and Berry's Brook Watersheds, Truslow, D The Seacoast Land Trust (SLT) conducted mapping and analysis of land within the Berry's Brook and Sagamore Creek watersheds. The analysis identified and ranked land parcels in each watershed based on natural resources, parcel size, and parcel location. The maps were used by SLT to conduct land protection outreach to landowners within the two watersheds. The areas of greatest concern were larger parcels, including the headwaters (adjacent to the Great Bog Watershed). It was recommended that SLT assist landowners with transaction costs associated with funding a conservation easement as land in the Seacoast is expensive as it is. SLT planned to model their plan after the GBRPP in funding and obtaining appraisals by conservation specialists to determine the level of funds needed to protect the land.

(2002) NHEP 2002 Communications Plan, Morris Garrand and Company created and publicized a slogan for NHEP - Be Part of the Solution - as the core message for an action-based communications campaign. The campaign focused on drawing public attention to Estuaries Month 2002 and developed an action message around what the public can do to "Be Part of the Solution." The 2002 Campaign provided NHEP with a new logo and an active message and communications materials (including window clings, posters, and brochures) to carry the message to the public. A media partnership was formed with Clear Channel, which was highly successful both in terms of its reach and the clarity of message. A 60-second radio spot was produced and aired extensively on the Clear Channel network of stations. Ideas for future communications included a quiz show segment on 107.1 WERZ.

(2002) NHEP Environmental Indicator Report: Shellfish (2002), Trowbridge, P This environmental indicator reports track progress toward the NHEP's management goals and objectives. The Shellfish Report tracks indicators for bed area, density, standing stock, predator and disease prevalence, and harvest characteristics.

(2002) NHEP Monitoring Plan - May 2002, Trowbridge, P The Plan identifies environmental and administrative indicators for the New Hampshire Estuaries Project, including how data will be collected and analyzed.

(2002) Protecting Shoreland Buffers in the Exeter River Watershed, Walker, T The Rockingham Planning Commission (RPC) reports a shorelands project including over two dozen meetings within the watershed communities highlighting the need for more shoreland protection. As of March 2002, none of the Towns had adopted specific shoreland protection regulations, but were proposing to either strengthen existing regulations or adopt new ones within the year. A highlight of the project was an increased understanding of ERLAC's mission on behalf of planning boards, conservation commissions, and the general public. Many new positive relationships have formed within the community.

(2002) Saving Special Places: Community Funding for Land Conservation, Taylor, J This is a guidebook compiled in 2002 by the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests and the Center for Land Conservation Assistance to help concerned citizens take action in obtaining funds to protect open space land from development. It provides information and examples to assist conservation commissions, boards of selectmen, citizens groups, or land trusts to: develop economic, environmental, and community quality of life rationale for conservation funding; evaluate communities' cost and benefits from land development versus the cost of land conservation; choose appropriate available funding options for towns; and organize and implement effective grassroots campaigns to build public and elected official support to pass local land conservation initiatives. It also provides over twenty examples of towns that have taken action and how they got started.

(2002) Septic System Workshops 2002, Gatzke Granite State Designers and Installers (GSDI) reports workshops they conducted in six New Hampshire communities (Rochester, Portsmouth, Hampton Falls, Northwood, Exeter, and Newmarket) about on-site wastewater treatment systems. The workshops were attended by 172 citizens and covered septic system function and maintenance and discussed current alternative products. In general, the participants showed very little knowledge of septic systems and were eager for information. Based on the attendance and the nature of questions posed by participants, there is interest among citizens for more information on septic systems, and there is a need to reach the thousands of other home owners with septic systems. GSDI recommended additional seminars, printed materials to homeowners, fact sheets, and availiability of Septic System Record Keeping Files Folders.

(2002) Shellfish and Water Quality Monitoring Activities that Support the NHEP, Jones, S & Langan,R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire conducted four separate studies in 2002 to meet a variety of goals outlined in the New Hampshire Estuaries Project Monitoring Plan. The following four studies were identified as priority to complete the picture of water quality issues in New Hampshire: (1) the time required for softshell clams to purge microbial contaminants from their tissue following rainfall; (2) determination of levels of bioexposure to toxic metals and organic compounds in softshell clams and oysters; (3) ribotyping analysis of E-coli strains for tracking sources of fecal-borne microbial contaminants; and (4) continuous monitoring of water quality (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, etc) at five stations in Great and Little bays. A general conclusion for projects 1,3, and 4 was continued study and/or updating of equipment used in studies. Project 2 was successful and no further recommendations were made.

(2002) Shellfish Population and Bed Dimension Assessment in the Great Bay Estuary, NHFG The results of the New Hampshire Fish & Game Department's (NHFG) shellfish monitoring project are reported. The project was funded by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project and achieved the following: delineated oyster bed size and density; monitored oyster disease; and examined the density of clam concentrations in the Great Bay Estuary. Data were collected at four Great Bay Estuary oyster beds during the fall of 2001. The extent of oyster shell coverage was surveyed using a combination of acoustic, video, and SCUBA techniques. Maps of the spatial extent of shell coverage were produced for all locations sampled. The Nannie Island bed is by far the largest followed by Adams Point, Woodman Point, and the Oyster River beds in that order. For future classification, NHFG recommended observing video stills to determine shell coverage as a percentage. Second, surveys of three soft-shelled clam (Mya arenaria) concentrations in the Great Bay Estuary were conducted over the summer and fall of 2002. Densities of clams were generally low, but of the sites visited, Royalls Cove had the highest density of harvestable clams. Substrate maps detailing sediment type were recommended for future use as they are less costly than counting of siphon holes. Finally, testing of oysters for the presence of two diseases, MSX and DERMO, was conducted during both years. During 2002 twenty-five individuals from four sites were collected by divers and sent to the Haskins Shellfish Research Lab at Rutgers University where testing is currently being conducted.

(2002) Shoreland Protection Assistance, Degnan, T Results of the Rockingham County Conservation District's (RCCD) natural resource inventory project are reported. The project was based within the coastal watershed and involved educating conservation commissions on conservation options through two workshops. In addition, two shoreland communities were provided sustained assistance to improve the local capacity to protect natural resources and implement permanent land conservation projects. Danville is pursuing several conservation projects, including establishing conservation easements for town-owned properties. The Town of Hampton Falls developed a conservation strategy and is pursuing permanent land protection projects with private landowners. It was concluded that the greatest asset to continuing such projects is technical assistance, which consequently is too expensive for many communities. RCCD recommended making these services more readily available, stating that further funding for projects will follow.

(2002) Stormwater Management BMP Report and Website, Couture, S The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) received funds in 2001 from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) to create a manual and a website of Innovative Stormwater Treatment Technology Best Management Practices. Based on Action Plan WQ-7, NHDES researched the effectiveness of stormwater treatment technologies in urban New Hampshire areas. As a result, a hard-copy manual was published in July 2002 and is available at the NHDES Public Information Center. The entire manual is also available online as was planned. The manual is located on the NHDES website at http://www.des.state.nh.us/wmb/was/manual/. The NHDES plans to update the manual twice a year to keep it updated for the public.

(2002) Stream Assessments and Water Quality Monitoring in the Cocheco River Watershed, Chase, J Volunteer water quality monitoring and stream surveys in the Cocheco River by the Cocheco River Watershed Coalition (CRWC) are reported. Volunteers worked with equipment, training and guidance from the NHDES Volunteer River Assessment Program. They also tested water quality using macro-invertebrates and surveyed riparian land use, wildlife habitat and vegetative cover on small tributary streams in the headwaters and in urban Rochester and Farmington. Monitors observed considerable impairment of stream banks in the urban areas, especially the dumping of yard waste and trash. In Rochester they organized a cleanup, recruiting neighbors and youth to help. Monitors also found areas of pristine beauty and healthy trout habitat in the midst of Rochester on Axe Handle Brook, Hurd Brook and Willow Brook. Those areas should be protected from urban infringement. CRWC determined that local shoreline protection regulations are inadequate to protect the small streams in both Farmington and Rochester at present. The New Hampshire Shoreland Protection Act does not affect the streams surveyed except the Isinglass River.

(2002) Summary of Coastal and Estuarine Monitoring Programs in New Hampshire, Trowbridge, P This report is a summary of Monitoring Programs, including information on lead organization, parameters collected, sampling frequency, location, and contact information.

(2002) Wildlife Habitat GIS Modeling Study - Piscassic and Lower Lamprey River Watersheds of NH, Zankel, M This technical report by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is part of a larger study entitled "Protecting Wildlife and Significant Habitat in Coastal New Hampshire." It was an initiative of the Great Bay Resource Protection Partnership (GBRPP), funded by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (see 260.TNC.02b). The fieldwork component of the study was implemented by the Audubon Society of NH and the NH Fish and Game Department in 2002, in cooperation with TNC. This report focuses on the GIS mapping and predictive habitat modeling developed by SPNHF in support of the fieldwork component of the is study and the larger land conservation efforts of the GBRPP. The results of this project will help direct conservation activities by providing on-the-ground data on the occurrences of significant biological and ecological resources in the Piscassic, and the lower and middle Lamprey river watersheds. Similar follow-up studies were planned for 2003.

(2001) 2000 Ambient Shellfish Water Monitoring, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' (NHDES) Shellfish Program reports their monthly monitoring activities for 2000 for their annual review of shellfish water classifications. All the tidal waters in New Hampshire were included in 81 stations. NSSP guidelines were followed, and by the requirements, the Systematic Random Sampling strategy was modified to be targeted on low tide conditions. Water quality was generally good, although some sites showed degraded water quality following rainfall events (defined as greater than one inch of precipitation.) Ambient monitoring will continue in 2001 with similar methods, but with only 73 test sites.

(2001) 2000 Coastal Illicit Connection Remediation Grant, Donlon The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports elimination of illicit connections in Portsmouth, Dover, and Rochester. The elimination process included rerouting a catch basin from the sewer system to the storm system, eliminating residential connections, and identifying new illicit connections. NHDES recommended two-year contracts for future projects as it takes time to get the grants approved. (By the time their contracts were approved, there was no time to get the projects done before winter.) They also recommended cost-sharing for homeowners and municipalities when the illicit discharge comes from a private residence.

(2001) 2001 NHDES Shellfish Program Activities, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services' Shellfish Program 2001 activities are described. Projects included the administration of the Shellfish Program, Hampton/Seabrook Water Quality Investigations, road/tributary sampling, Hampton/Seabrook clam purging study, ambient sampling of shellfish growing waters, PSP monitoring, citizen participation, and shoreline surveys for pollution sources.

(2001) Assessment and Recommendations for Bull Toad's Pond at Great Island Common - Part I, Degnan, T The Town of New Castle worked in conjunction with the Rockingham County Conservation District (RCCD) on a project that inventoried and evaluated Bull Toad's Pond, located at Great Island Common in New Castle, New Hampshire. The original scope of the project was directed at a detailed analysis and review of existing available data, field determinations, and analysis of current conditions of Bull Toad's Pond. An additional purpose was to recommend alternative solutions for restoring the functions and values of this degraded salt marsh. RCCD noted that the second phase for wetland restoration would be detailed in design, permitting, and construction and would not be easy; if New Castle chose to go ahead with it, they would need to start cost estimation and permitting soon.

(2001) Dover Sewer Extension to Address Nonpoint Pollution, Peschel, D Shoreline surveys by the City of Dover along the Bellamy River identified septic systems from shoreland homes as pollution sources. The City extended a sewer line to twelve homes on Spur Road, all of which have septic systems and property frontage on the Bellamy River. Project costs as well as detailed maps are included.

(2001) Eliminating Bacteria Loads to the Cocheco River: Stormwater/Sewer Separation Project, Phase II, Peschel, D for the project, which was started in 1998. Receipts of labor and parts are included. Follow-up water samples indicated that there were additional bacteria sources connected to storm drains on Central Avenue near St. Joseph's Church.

(2001) Great Bay Coast Watch Involvement with NHEP, 2001, Reid, A Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) reports their work as volunteers assisting the NHDES Shellfish Program with field investigations (phytoplankton monitoring, mussel collection, and sampling for potential pollution sources) in four test areas (Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, Great Bay, Little Bay, and the Bellamy River.) In addition to data collection, volunteers were able to educate the public about coastal issues such as Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. In total, volunteers contributed 448 hours of time to this project. Recommendations for future volunteer work from NHDES included field checks before sending volunteers to testing sites, recruiting and training teams for project assistance, and refresher training for past volunteers.

(2001) Laboratory Analyses of Water and Shellfish Samples from Coastal Waters, Finnegan The New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NHPHL) reports their analysis of 932 water samples for fecal coliforms, salinity, and pH. NHPHL also assisted in testing for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. FDA-required Quality Assurance Quality Control standards were met. All results were passed to the Shellfish Program and are reported in the 2001 Shellfish Program final report.

(2001) New Hampshire Estuaries Project Monitoring Plan, Langan, R This is a comprehensive monitoring plan with two phases of monitoring implementation by the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory for the NHEP. The plan answers environmental and programmatic questions.

(2001) Rainfall Effects on Bacterial Contamination, a Clam Purging Study and a Monitoring Plan, Jones, S The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports its collection and analysis of water and clam samples in Hampton Harbor to determine shoreline sources of fecal contamination. Rainfall events caused elevated concentrations of bacteria in culverts in Little Harbor, where contaminant concentration then decreased to low levels soon after the event. The response of clams following storm-related contamination events were mixed in the field. There was no clear demonstration of purging of bacterial contaminants in clams up to four days after storm events. JEL recommended continuing these tests regularly as outline in the Monitoring Plan.

(2001) Sanitary Survey Report for Little Harbor and Back Channel, New Hampshire, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services conducted a sanitation survey for the Little Harbor and Back Channel of coastal New Hampshire under National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidelines. Initiated in early 1999, the survey encompasses ambient water monitoring through the end of 2001. Tests were conducted on the following: (1) pollution sources that may be affecting the area; (2) meteorological and hydrographic factors that may affect distribution of pollutants; and (3) water quality. Prohibited/Safety zones were determined, and some areas of the Little Harbor and Back Channel area were closed due to unacceptable PSP levels.

(2001) Septic System Workshops 2001, Clough Granite State Designers and Installers (GSDI) reports three workshops they conducted in Dover, Portsmouth, and Hampton Falls. The workshops were attended by 132 citizens and covered septic system function and maintenance, and current alternative products. In general, the participants showed very little knowledge of septic systems and were eager for information. Based on the attendance and the nature of questions posed by participates, there is interest among citizens for more information on septic systems, and there is a need to reach the thousands of other home owners with septic systems.

(2001) The Oyster River Watershed Management Plan, Phillips The report describes the activities of the Strafford Regional Planning Commission, the Oyster River Watershed Association (ORWA), and community leaders to develop a Management Plan. The plan addresses issues such as population growth and land use changes, and focuses on ways to identify new concerns. A summary of ORWA was included (it covers 31 square miles of land and 6 communities totaling over 56,000 residents). Focus groups met through a period of nine months and identified five major threats. Water quality was identified as the greatest threat to watershed health as population grows. A Management Plan was created and capacity for future communications between ORWA and individual community leaders was enhanced.

(2001) Water Sample Analysis for Shellfish Program, Larmouth Tests for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) at the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) laboratories in 2000 are reported. The testing was expanded beyond the areas of previous testing out to Star Island, Isle of Shoals, because DHHS found that this was where blooms of phytoplankton (which can cause PSP) originate on the New Hampshire seacoast. NSSP bioassay procedures were followed at the DHHS lab in Concord, where cleaned samples were transported. Virtually all samples contained toxin levels of under 44 micrograms, well below the danger levels for consumption. Although dangerous PSP levels have not been found, DHHS concluded that the potential for high toxin levels exists in New Hampshire coastal waters and should be closely monitored in the spring, summer, and fall.

(2000) 2000 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Monitoring in New Hampshire Tidal Waters, Nash, C The NH Department of Environmental Services' Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) monitoring of blue mussels are reported. Testing was conducted at two sites ( Hampton/Seabrook Harbor and the Isles of Shoals), and mussels were sampled on a weekly basis about 25-30 at a time. Virtually all samples had toxin levels below 44 micrograms per 100 grams of edible tissue, well below the 80 microgram/100 gram level that warrants closure of areas to harvesting. A large area in Maine was found to have unacceptable levels of PSP and was forced to close in mid-May. Although New Hampshire tidal waters have not typically been associated with dangerous levels of PSP, it was recommended by the NH fish and Game that regular testing continue. In addition, the high levels found in Maine are a sign that nearby areas (such as Rye Beach) should be monitored. Finally, the blue mussel was recommended to be used in future testing due to its quick absorption of the toxin, however testing of species with longer retention rates were in progress.

(2000) 2000 Water Quality Studies in Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, Nash, C The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports a series of water quality and pollution source impact studies of Hampton/Seabrook Harbor's shellfish growing waters. Studies included impacts of rainfall on water quality, occurrence of dry weather contamination in autumn, sources of wet weather contamination, and other issues, and were geared toward re-evaluating the harbor's classification. The rainfall test results suggest that a change in current 0.10"/0.25" may be warranted, especially for the winter and spring, but further investigation is needed for any significant changes to the criterion for autumn.

(2000) A Technical Characterization of Estuarine and Coastal New Hampshire, Jones, S This is a comprehensive review and analysis of water quality and natural resource information for New Hampshire estuaries, including documentation of status and trends compiled by the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire.

(2000) Barrington Open Space, Recreation, and Town Center Plan, SRPC Stratford Regional Planning Commission (SRPC) assisted the Town of Barrington to survey town residents on open space, recreation, and town center issues and conducted a natural resources inventory. Recommendations were to identify strategies to implement open space conservation, to develop additional recreational opportunities for the town, and to design, create, and enhance the town center.

(2000) Completion of Priority Issues, Action Plans, an Implementation Plan, and Public Comment for NHEP, Varn, J This is a final report to outline the actions of the UNH Program on Consensus Negotiation in contributing to the NHEP's 2000 Management Plan. Projects were organized into five groups: water quality; land use, development, and habitat protection; shellfish resources; habitat restoration; and public outreach and involvement. Teams working on each individual topic met and developed specific goals pertaining to each area of the plan. In addition, two public meetings were held to gauge public opinion on the draft report. As a result, action plans were created for the NHEP management plan and the document was branded a living resource (meaning that it would be continually updated and monitored for changes.)

(2000) Conservation Survey and Tax Map Digitizing, Anderson The results of a Natural Resource Opinion survey conducted by Moose Mountains Regional Greenways (MMRG) are described. Approximately 6,000 were distributed in Wakefield, Brookfield, Middleton, New Durham, Farmington, and Milton and 10% were returned. Results indicated a population highly engaged in the outdoors and concerned about maintaining their area's rural character. Respondants appeared to be ill-informed about the actual issues involved, including tax-related issues and water resources. Digital tax maps were created for three towns, digital data converted for one town, and two towns had adequate digitized parcel data. Parcel data is in use by MMRG for conservation prioritization, prime wetlands investigations, and other natural resource projects.

(2000) Great Bay Coast Watch Involvement in NHEP, 2000, Reid, A The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) reports their assistance to the NHDES Shellfish Program to conduct fecal coliform analyses in Hampton and Little Harbors. GBCW also participated in flow studies, collection of mussels for toxicity monitoring, and phytoplankton monitoring. GBCW volunteers contributed over 290 hours to the project. They also completed 14 trips to the Isle of Shoals to assist with PSP monitoring and found that levels remained undetectable despite increased phytoplankton blooms. Recommendations included future volunteer recruitment and training volunteers for mussel collection and transportation to alleviate some of the work from the staff.

(2000) Installation of Jan-Mar Farm Barnyard Stormwater Best Management Practices, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services reports a project that corrected pollution problems from the Jan Mar Farm in the Salmon Falls watershed through installation of agricultural BMPs. Exclusionary fencing was installed, a 25' vegetative buffer was planted along the intermittent stream, a stone waterway was constructed, a diversion with catch basin, underground outlet, and concrete road savers were installed, concrete ground gutters and an apron and grade around existing catch basins were constructed, and an additional manure storage facility was built. Pre and post- monitoring concluded positive impacts on water quality.

(2000) New Village Sewer Cross Connection Elimination, Underwood Engineers The Town of Newmarket in conjunction with Underwood Engineers Inc. investigated and corrected a sewer/storm drain cross connection near the Cedar Street Pump Station in Newmarket, New Hampshire. Underwood Engineers mapped the storm drain system, conducting dye testing, water quality testing, and identified a pipe that runs through the sewer manhole near Cedar Street to be the source of the problem. The pipe was repaired and the system cleaned, showing significant decreases in fecal coliform levels. The low remaining levels were not believed to be from a cross connection but rather residual contamination from the original sewer back-up or laundry (or other gray water) discharges from sumps.

(2000) Newmarket Open Space Conservation Plan, Mitchell The Town of Newmarket created an open lands conservation plan including a vision that coincides with the Town's purposes for protecting open lands, a working inventory of open spaces, an educational plan aimed at improving and enhancing the public's appreciation of Newmarket's natural areas, and a conservation plan that identifies specific priority areas for protection. It was recommended that individual spaces of land be targeted separately for cosideration and that close examination of grant application processes be observed.

(2000) NHEP Management Plan - 2000, NHEP Approved in 2001, the New Hampshire Estuaries Project Management Plan is a comprehensive approach to protecting and enhancing the state's estuaries. Spanning three years, the collaborative processes to develop the plan involved the work of researchers, planners, shellfishers, concerned citizens and other coastal stakeholders. The resulting Plan describes 98 actions to be undertaken throughout New Hampshire's coastal watershed to achieve and sustain healthy estuarine systems. The NHEP Management Plan identifies Action Items in five areas: (1)Water Quality,(2 ) Land Use, Development, and Habitat Protection, (3) Shellfish Resources, (4)Habitat Restoration and (5) Public Outreach and Education. These actions are not activities to be implemented solely by the NHEP; rather, they are a guide for government agencies, recreational users, businesses, educators, and members of the public who are working toward a clean, healthy estuarine environment.

(2000) NHEP Management Plan Executive Summary - 2000, NHEP The NHEP's Management Plan's Executive Summary for 2000, including document organization, action plans, what defines an estuary, a brief history on the New Hampshire Estuary System, and NHEP's implementation strategy.

(2000) NHEP Public Hearing Proceedings, January 11, 2000, SSC This is a verbatim transcript of a public hearing for the NHEP as recorded by the Seacoast Science Center. The hearing was held at the Center on January 11, 2000 at 7:00 pm and headed by Jeffrey Taylor of the New Hampshire Office of State Planning. A disk is included with the dialogue report.

(2000) NHEP Public Hearing Proceedings, January 20, 2000, SSC This is a verbatim report of a public hearing for the NHEP at the Center of New Hampshire (at the University of New Hampshire) held on January 20, 2000 at 7:00 pm, and was recorded by the Seacoast Science Center.

(2000) Regulation and Management of NH Estuaries: A Base Programs Analysis, Paulsen An extensive report on the management framework of the New Hampshire Estuaries by the New Hampshire Fish & Game in conjunction with the Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve is presented. Among the topics discussed are methodology of testing, estuary issues, point and non-point sources of pollution, and habitat alteration and resources.

(2000) Seacoast Science Center Contract Extension Report, Chase, J The Seacoast Science Center (SSC) provided services to oversee the NHEP from January 2000 through May 2000 while the project was without a Director. This is a discussion of their services, which mainly consisted of the final editorial steps required for EPA approval of the NHEP Management Plan. The SSC anticipated a continuing subcontract with PM Designs to assure efficient completion of future work. They also plan on continuing to help the NHEP with action plan implementation when appropriate.

(2000) Shellfish Habitat Restoration Strategies for New Hampshire's Estuaries, Langan, R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports changes in shellfish bed size and factors affecting declines. JEL identified locations where there had been decline in aerial cover of shellfish habitat or abundance and then evaluated causes of the decline. Studies found that all oyster beds in the Great Bay estuary have declined in both size and abundance due to decline in siltation, lack of larval settlement substrate (clean shell), predators, and disease (MSX in particular.) Restoration techniques for oysters and softshell clams were provided for each known bed. JEL found that some factors could not be controlled (disease, predators) but will continue close monitoring and enforcement of restoration techniques such as limiting movement to slow spread of disease.

(2000) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, Smith, B Results from the New Hampshire Fish & Game's (NHFG) testing of the presence of two pathogens (MSX and Dermo) in oysters in the Great Bay area are reported. In the fall of 2000, oysters at least 65 mm shell length were collected from the following recreational areas: Nannie Island; Adams Point; Oyster River; and Piscataqua River. MSX was shown to be widely distributed in the entire Great Bay area. Dermo was found to have little to no presence currently in the Great Bay system, and had not for the previous three years. It was concluded that the threat from the 1995 Piscataqua River epizootic is no longer a serious threat to the oyster population. NHFG encouraged at least annual sampling of the oysters from various selected sights to be continued, and discouraged the movement of oyster beds to prevent possible spread of infectious stages of Dermo. (MSX has not been proven to be spread oyster-to-oyster).

(2000) The State of New Hampshire's Estuaries, NHEP This is a summary of status and trends of New Hampshire's estuarine water quality and natural resources, largely drawn from the NHEP Technical Characterization document. Included are a "report card" on New Hampshire's Estuaries (including air and water quality, toxic materials, land use, natural resources, and recreational use) as well as predictions for the future of the estuaries.

(2000) Toxic Contaminant Monitoring at Shellfish Growing Sites in New Hampshire, Landry, N The NH Department of Environmental Services (NH DES) sampling of mussels in 2000 is described. Four replicate samples of 20 individual mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected at two sites ( Hampton Harbor and Rye Harbor), and tested for toxic contamination. Lab results were forthcoming at the time of submittal, but the NH DES recommended a comparison between the results and FDA guidelines and that New Hampshire Estuaires Project continue to be involved in monitoring toxic contaminants in shellfish growing waters.

(2000) Water Quality Analysis Supporting Sanitary Surveys, Jones, S The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory at UNH (JEL) reports their analysis of shoreline samples for fecal coliform, E. coli, and pH. Water samples in Whirl-Pak bags were shaken and measured, and bacterial cells were collected and incubated. Four Atlantic coast and two Great Bay sites had fecal coliform counts greater than 500FC/100ml. Low ratios suggest that the contamination may be from sources other than human fecal origin.

(1999) Analysis of Physiochemical Water Quality Data for, Langan, R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports monthly water sampling conducted in 1999 to establish and maintain the sanitary classification of shellfish growing waters in accordance with NSSP guidelines. Eleven sites were analyzed for total suspended solids, percent of organic content on combustion, chlorophyll a, nitrate-nitrite, and pH. Sites with the greatest upland impact had lower salinities and higher nutrient concentration than those downstream. All data were within the expected ranges, indicating a lack of severe water quality problems. JEL concluded that long-term monitoring would be needed to manage inputs such as freshwater and nitrogen to the estuaries. JEL also recommended a quality assurance/quality control program for the field aspects of the study be written.

(1999) Assessment of Clam (Mya arenaria) Populations in the Great Bay Estuary, Langan, R This project was aimed at providing updated data concerning the condition of clam populations in the Great Bay area by the Jackson Estuarine Lab at the University of New Hampshire. The study was limited to areas classified as approved for harvesting and areas where sanitation studies were already being conducted. Populations were determined by clam count and number of siphon holes found in selected quarter-mile quadrants. Sediment type was also recorded for each area. It was found that clam abundance was low in the intertidal flat areas, likely due to predation, low recruitment, and unfavorable substrate. Management recommendations involved determining suitable clam habitat based on sediment content, temperature, and sanitation. Also, natural seed enhancement and predator exclusion studies were recommended to test the degree to which these factors affect clam population.

(1999) Atlantic Coast Sanitary Survey, Winslow-Prat This report, by the Department of Health and Human Services, comprises the first official NSSP sanitary shellfish survey for New Hampshire's Atlantic Coast and recommends a mixture of approved, seasonally approved, and prohibited classifications.

(1999) Boat Support for Sanitary Survey, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game (NHFG) reports the boat support and technical assistance it provided for a nearly complete set of monthly samples from Great Bay and Hampton/Seabrook Harbor. As many as 26 stations were sampled throughout the Great Bay estuary from the Piscataqua River to the southwest corner of Great Bay. Activities included the maintenance of water stations, collection of water samples, and collection of ancillary water test data. NHFG had no data responsibilities but did give input relative to the location of collection sites. NHFG recommended continued NHEP water quality testing under NSSP guidelines.

(1999) Clam Population Assessment in Back Channel, Portsmouth, Langan, R The Jackson Estuarine Lab at the University of New Hampshire surveyed softshell clam populations in the Back Channel area of Portsmouth Harbor. All sites had suitable habitat characteristics, but clams were common on only one site. A recommendation to further investigate juvenile survival was made.

(1999) Cross Beach Road Stormwater Drainage Project, Town of Seabrook The Town of Seabrook reports a project designed to prevent salt marsh degradation by correcting stormwater drainage in the area of Cross Beach Road in Seabrook, New Hampshire. Stormwater runoff pooling just south of the road brought the threat of phragmites, purple loosestrife, and other nuisance weeds. A drainage ditch was built with a three-person work crew and an excavator. Silt fencing was placed along the path of the ditch during excavation and a partial amount of the material was placed near the site. The project took less time than anticipated and the stormwater runoff now runs through flapper valves, through ditch culverts, and into the marsh.

(1999) Development of Draft Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, Cook, R This report documents the development of initial drafts for selected chapters of the NHEP's Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP) as compiled by the Audubon Society of New Hampshire (ASNH.) Chapters on the following topics are included: Pollution Issues (Point Sources, Oil Spills, Air Quality); Coastal Natural Resource Issues; Habitat Restoration; Indicators of Environmental Quality; Recreational Opportunity Issues; and Economic Development Issues. The two main sources of information for the ASNH were the technical characterization and the base program analysis. ASNH recommended using the remaining funds from 1998's work to complete restoration projects in the coming year as well as continued partnership with The Nature Conservancy in developing the habitat sections of the CCMP.

(1999) Draft Management Plan Development for Habitat Protection & Restoration, Cook, R The Audubon Society of New Hampshire (ASNH) outlines the development of action plans related to habitat protection and restoration for inclusion in the NHEP Management Plan. Using previous plans, specifically the technical characterization and the base program analysis, ASNH expanded the topics and compiled lists of studies, reports, and recommended actions. ASNH plans to continue working closely with NHEP to update plan development and stay on top of changes.

(1999) Edmond Avenue Stormwater Management Project, City of Portsmouth The Public Works Department for Portsmouth New Hampshire reports the implementation of a wetland restoration/stormwater management project on the Edmond Avenue Marsh in Portsmouth. The project was completed in conjunction with Swamp, Inc., a wetland contractor. A wetland permit was obtained through NHDES and a meeting with the Conservation Commission regarding the project revealed their unanimous support. Public Works found problems with low ground pressure equipment availability. They also feltl that it could be beneficial to place more emphasis on the biological functions of urban wetlands when designing stormwater systems as urban sprawl continues.

(1999) Eliminating Bacterial Loads to the Cocheco River: Storm Drain/Sewer Separation Project Phase II, Peschel, D The City of Dover reports two cross connections that were detected and the illicit connections were removed. The City's original goal had been to remove eleven illicit connections, but finding the process longer than expected, will continue working at these sites, and were proud to announce the successful removal of twelve connections total in 1998 and 1999.

(1999) Elimination of Bacterial Load to the Cocheco River, City of Dover The City of Dover documents work to identify and eliminate ten sewage cross connections to stormwater outfalls affecting the Cocheco River in Dover, New Hampshire. NHDES tested water quality samples for bacteria. Samples with high fecal coliform counts were suspected as having illicit sewer services in the drainage system. The goal was to remove at least six cross connections, but due to an extension granted on the project, ten were eliminated. Bacterial counts at discharge points into the Cocheco have dropped following the removal of the cross connections. However, the persistence of high counts at other locations led to the discovery of additional illicit connections, scheduled for removal in fall 1999. The City of Dover Utilities Division looked forward to working with NHDES Non-point Pollution Prevention again for future water quality projects.

(1999) Elimination of Illicit Connections in Coastal New Hampshire Spurs Corporation and Controversy, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports the findings of a three-year project to identify and eliminate sources of bacterial contamination in coastal New Hampshire urban stormwater systems. Bacteria data from outfall pipes with confirmed cross connections ranged from 1,700 to 1,000,000 E. Coli counts/100mL during dry weather in Dover, New Hampshire. Flow from a damaged stormwater outfall pipe was determined to have a geometric mean E.Coli concentration of 1,047,199 cfu/100mL and a dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration of 22.4mg/l. The cross connection's source was found to be a commercial building and was repaired, lowering concentrations to 93 E.Coli cfu/100mL and 7.2 DIN mg/l. NHDES carried out case studies in Exeter, Newmarket, and Dover involving voluntary compliance, enforcement action, and legal action, respectively. NHDES is currently monitoring shellfish growing waters to determine the extent of water quality improvement from the removal of illicit connections.

(1999) Epping's Lamprey Watershed Program, Simmons Water quality monitoring of Lamprey River in Epping is reported by Epping Middle High School and describes the involvement of Epping school staff, students, and community members in the project. The primary goal was to involve the students of EMHS in hands-on water quality science. The project became an after-school program. Training sessions were held for volunteers and teachers met to integrate the experience into the school curriculum. Student interest and participation was very successful, but parental/adult supervision was a problem area. More emphasis on acquiring adult supervision was recommended to enable the project to continue.

(1999) Graphic/Info Transfer (Progress Report), Rubin, F The Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire reports the assistance they gave in providing technical assistance to project contractors for the NHEP. Maps were produced for the Technical Characterization Report and the Base Programs Analysis (community ordinances). An attempt was also made to map shoreline habitat conditions in Dover and Lower Great Bay.

(1999) Implementing Effective Land Stewardship Programs, Cook, R The Great Bay Resource Protection Partnership (GBRPP) reports their efforts to develop the capacity seacoast communities' capacity to be effective long-term protectors of habitat and conservation land. The project included educational workshops and technical assistance to coastal municipalities on how to develop and implement effective land stewardship and monitoring programs. GBRPP found a need for stewardship information on a regular basis as requested by workshop attendees and planned on developing future workshops as well as a refresher course for past attendees.

(1999) Installation of Stuart Farm Barnyard Erosion and Sediment Control Best Management Practices, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) reports its project focused on the installation of best management plans to reduce the impacts of barnyard and stormwater pollution from a 271-acre dairy farm in Stratham, New Hampshire. The Stuart Farm was identified by the Natural Resource Conservation Service and NHDES as a high priority stormwater/nonpoint source problem area in 1998. Pre-installation samples were taken using a Teflon-lined Stormwater Vortex Sampler. Subsurface drainage systems were installed, asphalt-lined waterways were constructed, and the heavy traffic areas were resurfaced and stabilized with an asphalt "hot mix." Post-installation data had not been collected at the time of reporting, however the retention pond had structural problems that caused it to fail. Post-installation data collection was recommended as well as addressing manure storage since the current system, installed in the 1980's, is obsolete.

(1999) Little River Salt Marsh Land Owner Organization Project, Mixter The North Hampton Conservation Commission (NHCC) reports their efforts for abutting landowners in the restoration planning for Little River salt marsh. NHCC hired a contractor through NH Soils, contacted landowners, and held a landowners' meeting outlining plans for the Restoration Project. Finally, NHCC conducted a survey of the salt marsh to incorporate a proper buffer zone and planned to send out parcel-specific information packets (which was delayed due to the possibility of subdivision.)

(1999) Newmarket Storm Drain/Sewer Cross Connections: Identification and Correction, Underwood Engineers The Town of Newmarket in conjunction with Underwood Engineers Inc. reports their work to identify and eliminate four sewage cross connections to stormwater outfalls affecting the Lamprey River in Newmarket, New Hampshire. Fecal coliform contamination was identified by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services in 1996 at the Creighton Street and Boat Launch outfalls. After further evaluation, it was determined that these outfalls were contributing to the prohibition of shellfish harvesting for human consumption on the Lamprey River and parts of Great Bay. Newmarket hired Underwood Engineers as their contractor after performing dye testing of building sewers to identify the cross connections. After Underwood made the repairs, dry weather testing showed a 90% reduction in E.Coli counts at the outfalls. The elimination of much of the sewer discharge in this area will contribute to the goal of eventually opening shellfish beds for dry weather harvesting.

(1999) NHEP GIS Services: Subwatershed Delineation - Lamprey River, Rubin, F The Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire reports the results of a mapping project for the Lamprey River for NHEP. One hundred subwatersheds were delineated and automated within the 136,859 acre Lamprey Basin. Subwatersheds were assigned a unique identifier. The preliminary maps Vallana Winslow-Pratt maps are in Appendix I. Community Ordinance maps are in Appendix II and include Shoreland Protection Districts, Wetland Protection Districts, and Aquifer Protection Districts. The GRANIT System was used to complete most of the projects. The CSRC recommended supporting documentation for incoming data as well as making data spatially-referenced for future projects to ease the transition of converting information to maps useful to the public.

(1999) NHEP Management Plan - DRAFT (1999), NHEP Used to form the 2000 NHEP Management Plan.

(1999) NHEP Public Outreach Activities for FY 97, Chase, J This report documents all public outreach activities for NHEP's second year. Included are two public conferences, two estuary tours for local decision makers, finalization of the shoreland property owners database, and the Seacoast Environmental Network Conference. The outreach programs worked toward a higher goal of implementing the NHEP Management Plan. Plans for year three included continued updating of the shoreland property owners database, organizing the public hearing and review process for the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, and publication of the State of the Estuaries report.

(1999) Northwood Wetland Inventory and Prime Wetland Designation Project, Van de Poll This project documents the assessment of 63 wetlands in the Town of Northwood, NH, and describes the process that will be used to revise town wetland ordinances as a result of the findings of the wetland evaluation in cooperation with the Northwood's Conservation Commission. The project had three different portions: (1) Wetland Evaluation; (2) Revision of the Northwood Wetland Ordinance; and (3) Proposing Prime Wetlands Designation. The largest of the wetlands proved to be the highest of value in terms of attributes. Significant revisions were made to the designation of prime wetlands in Northwood.

(1999) Odyssey School: Hampton Storm Drain Outflow Report, Bellantone The Odyssey School in Hampton, New Hampshire (a mostly court-ordered school for students who have had difficulty in public school) evaluated fecal contamination from five stormwater outflows in the Hampton/Seabrook Estuary and reported their results. Their project consisted of two parts: collecting water sampling data from the designated outflow pipes leading to Hampton Harbor; and developing an on-going sampling project. The general conclusion was that the water quality of Hampton Outflow was poor. The mean fecal coliform count was between 66cts/100mL and 375cts/100mL. For future projects, Odyssey School recommended a member of DES work closely with the teams to help them interpret data.

(1999) Piscassic Breeding Bird Survey, Cook, R In June, 1999, the Audubon Society of New Hampshire (ASNH) conducted a study of bird breeding habits on lands along the Piscassic River to enhance their understanding of bird distribution and productivity. ASNH hired George W. Gavutis Jr. to serve as project director. The team assembled under Gavutis logged about 80 hours, most of which was field time, and during which bird tape was played to look for the support of at least one of ten species. It was concluded that the year's drought was severe in southeastern New Hampshire (from Durham and Great Bay to the Massachusetts line). In addition, many abandoned beaver dams were discovered, and a low beaver population observed. This low population means that wetlands would need intensive lands management, which was proposed in the following areas (in order of priority): Piscassic Ice Pond; Piscassic River Corridor and Watershed; Little Brook Corridor and Watershed; The Fresh River upstream from Birch Road; The Fresh River's lower portion; and Beech Hill Brook headquarters. Finally, water quality in the Piscassic was of great concern, and ASNH recommended continued observation and maintenance of the river.

(1999) Restoration of Clam Habitat in the Seabrook/Hampton Estuary, Barnaby, R The UNH Cooperative Extension and Sea Grant, along with the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL), report their project on the restoration of clam habitat in the Hampton/Seabrook Estuary through the removal and relocation of mussels that had colonized the clam flat. The report includes documentation of clam flat condition before and after mussel removal. Methods included clam and mussel assessment, pilot mussel transplant, and mussel removal and relocation. JEL's custom-designed mussel rake proved effective in removing mussels for relocation and will be used in the future.

(1999) Stormwater Control at the Allen School, City of Rochester, Chase, J he City of Rochester reports stormwater control measures taken to reduce erosion and sedimentation of the Cocheco Rive at the Allen Street School in Rochester, New Hampshire. Stormwater drainage flowed from Woodman and Granite Streets and Sheridan Avenue through the school grounds toward the River. With the help of the City of Rochester Public Works Department and the Cocheco River Watershed Coalition, teacher, student, and parent volunteers removed obsolete playground equipment from the school as well as pea stone, trash, and invasive weeds to uncover the stormwater drainage system. Stormwater runoff culverts were curbed to release water onto an existing vegetated swale north of the playground instead of on the footpath hills and the eroded access road on the school ground. Playground equipment was relocated above the flood plain. A display of the project and results was displayed at the Rochester City Hall. The project coordinator has been approached by other schools to use their work as a model for similar restoration projects.

(1999) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game studied the presence of two pathogens, MSX and Dermo, in Great Bay oysters. Both pathogens have been monitored bi-annually in Great Bay oysters since 1997. During 1997, oysters of 65mm or greater length were collected and sent to Rutgers University for tissue section histology (MSX) and Ray's fluid thioglycollate incubation of rectal and mantle tissues (Dermo.) MSX was found to be widespread in the Great Bay area with levels of infection varying among sites. Dermo was found to be widespread but of relatively low infection everywhere except Stugeon Bed and the Piscataqua River. It was recommended that the testing continue and that no oyster beds be moved to prevent further infection.

(1999) The Clam Hotline as a Shellfish Informational Resource for Public Outreach, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game Department (NHFG) describes the use of the NHFG "clam hotline*" as a public outreach tool. The hotline provides current information on the status of shellfish areas with regard to their opening. Use of the hotline shows seasonal variability. Since the hotline is mostly used by harvesters who know the prescribed seasons for different species, this information is not included. What is included is information on secondary factors that regulate openings and closings, including: sanity (microbiological) constraints; red tide (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning); and pollution events (ex. Oil spils.) The number was most active in December, followed by April, and least active in August and July (a time when clam and oyster harvesting is consistently closed.) Recreational harvesters appear to be utilizing the hotline most and messages left on the hotline strongly suggest that this is the public's main resource for harvest activity information. NHFG recommended continuing the hotline and exploring ways to improve its effectiveness.

(1999) UNH GBCW Involvement in NHEP: Shoreline Survey Field Assistance and Habitat Survey Along Atl Coast, Reid, A The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) at UNH reports its volunteer efforts to assist NHEP with shoreline surveys of shellfish growing areas along the New Hampshire coast. GBCW trained their own volunteers and participated in field work with NHEP, and together they completed the shoreline survey in nine days. GBCW also surveyed 21 parcels around Parson's Creek for habitat and 14 water samples were taken. Of the water samples, three had elevated levels of fecal coliform and were sent to the Department of Environmental Services for follow-up. Other habitat comments are included in a spreadsheet in the report. GBCW was recommended to help with fecal coliform analyses in the future as well as to continue working on shoreline surveys. Habitat evaluations before the shoreline surveys were also recommended to detect potential sources of pollution.

(1999) Water Quality and Rainfall Analysis Supporting Sanitary Surveys in Hampton Harbor and Great Bay, Jones, S The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory at UNH reports the results of water samples collected from the shorelines of Hampton Harbor and Great Bay to determine if shellfish growing waters were safe for harvesting. More specifically: fecal coliform and pH were tested; technical assistance was given; and the existing Hampton Harbor water quality database was augmented with fecal coliform following rainfall events. In total, 244 samples from 122 sites were analyzed. Fecal coliform counts ranged from undetected to 20,000 fc/100mL, and pH was generally between 6.5 and 8.5. The fecal coliform indicator was found to be useful as it showed elevated counts at all suspected areas of contamination. Further pre and post rainfall sampling was recommended.

(1999) Water Quality Assessment of Stormwater Control Systems: Bacterial Phase Partitioning in Stormwater, Jones, S The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports a project, part of CICEET, which analyzes the forms in which microbial contaminants are transported through stormwater treatment systems (particle-bound or freely suspended). The goals of the project were to test methods for differentiating free-living from particle-bound bacteria indicators and pathogens in water samples, and to determine what forms of bacteria are discharged into stormwater systems. The methods used consisted of differential filtration and centrifugation. Based on the range of freely-suspended fecal coliform (25%-82%), fecal coliform cells are not associated with particles. This suggests that stormwater treatment technologies that separate suspended particles may not remove a significant level of microbial contamination. Further studies were recommended to determine if existing technologies are capable of removing microbial contaminants.

(1998) A Listing of Agricultural Producers in Strafford County Managed by the Producer, Miller The Strafford County Conservation District (SCCD) reports information they collected on agricultural producers in Strafford County including the numbers of animals and acres of crops managed by the producer. SCCD planned to use this information to determine the impact of non-point pollution from agriculture in the county area. A survey was sent out and included a list of services that producers could request from Natural Resources Conservation Service. SCCD recommended breaking up the watershed into smaller sub-watersheds to ease the decision making process for government officials. They were also creating report forms for the new database.

(1998) Bellamy River Shoreline Status Report, Winslow-Pratt The New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services reports their documentation of pollution sources along the Bellamy River, primarily in the tidal portion. Shoreline field surveys were conducted along Bellamy River and both actual and potential pollution sources were identified (including road drainage pipes, failing septic systems, and numerous seeps.) Simple habitat surveys were also conducted to determine the health of the tidal marsh. The work provides the basis for a future shellfish water sanitation survey of the Bellamy River.

(1998) Critical Lands Analysis, UNH Complex Systems This project by the Complex Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire utilized the state GIS to identify lands with multiple natural resource values that may be impacted by future development. Project focused on the 19 municipalities in the coastal area (the New Hampshire Estuaries Project's Zone A.) The main objective was to identify vacant, developable lands within the zone, and to determine which of those discovered had outstanding characteristics that are important to maintaining the environmental quality of the watershed. The result was a series of town-based and regional maps of standard GIS quality.

(1998) Development of Priority Issues, Action Plans, and an Implementation Strategy for the NHEP Mgmt. Plan, Varn, J The Program on Census and Negotiation at the University of New Hampshire documents the status of the development of NHEP Management Plan Priority Issues, Goals, Objectives, and Strategies. This was accomplished through a series of censuses involving various groups and individuals. Also included is a draft the NHEP Management Plan Implementation Strategy, compiled by considering both current organizations' efforts and areas lacking suitable coverage.

(1998) Draft Data Management and Access Strategy for the NHEP, Langan, R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at the University of New Hampshire reports a proposed data management system that is internet-based and includes a database of environmental reports and links to other information sources and related programs. After identifying historical databases of New Hampshire's coastal and estuarine areas, JEL updated and added to the information and held two meetings to get further input from agencies and project participants. The final product will include a database searchable by keyword, report title, and other such queries, and will be available online to the public.

(1998) Fairhill Saltmarsh Restoration Project, Swamp Inc. The Rye Mosquito Control Commission, in conjunction with Swamp Inc, reports the restoration of the hydrologic and ecological functions of a degraded salt marsh, Fairhill Saltmarsh, in Rye New Hampshire. Specific goals of the project were: restoration of open water (panne) habitat on the surface; mosquito control by minnows; increased widgeongrass; improved open water for birds; invasive plant control; and increased diversity. As a result of numerous different tasks: minnow population has increased; mosquito larval and pupae population has decreased by 95%; several widgeongrass colonies were observed; and open water space was increased. After completion, recommendations for future projects included detailed aerial photographs (pre and post restoration), using only tracked vehicles under four PSI to prevent marsh damage, and the limitation of spoil to marshland only.

(1998) Federal Funding Source Program Search, Arcieri This is the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) funding programs and the specific requirements of each program relevant to the NHEP as reported by Great Bay Environmental Consulting. A list of relevant grant programs by topic is also provided. This information is found in the NHEP Management Plan.

(1998) NH Estuaries Project Map Production: Final Report, UNH Complex Systems Complex Systems Research Center at UNH provided NHEP contractors with technical support to translate environmental measurements into a GIS-based format to facilitate information dissemination.

(1998) NHEP Volunteer Shoreline Field Assistance and Data Management, Meeker, S & Reid, A The Great Bay Watch (GBW) reports volunteer efforts associated with shellfish growing area sanitary surveys in the Hampton/Seabrook and Great Bay Estuaries. NHEP contracted GBW to recruit and train volunteers to conduct shoreline surveys. GBW's shoreline work at Hampton Harbor assisted with the required reviews that enabled the Middle Ground clam flats to be opened for harvesting for the first time in ten years. Volunteers completed field work in 17 days having surveyed 152 properties. The data collected was used to assist the triennial review for the shellfish growing waters in Hampton/Seabrook Estuary.

(1998) Recreational Soft Shell Clam Harvest Survey, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game Department (NHFG) quantified clam harvest pressure in the Hampton Harbor estuary in the fall of 1998. NHFG recorded the actual number of recreational harvesters seen exiting Middle Ground, Common Island, and Lockes Point clam flats. It was determined that many New Hampshire residents utilize the clam beds recreationally. Continued progress of pollution monitoring was recommended to open additional areas available for recreation.

(1998) Resource Protection Evaluation, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game conducted studies to determine the degree of illegal harvesting and sale of shellfish in coastal New Hampshire, with an emphasis on the Hampton Harbor Estuary. By 1998, the project was in its second year. During the period of the project's observation (June 1998-December 1998), no illegal harvesting was observed.

(1998) State of the North Mill Pond, Portsmouth, NH, Bogen, D The Advocates for the North Mill Pond (ANMP) report a project designed to identify pollution sources and document the natural resources around the North Mill Pond in downtown Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Shoreline conditions, potential pollution sources, and estuarine habitats were studied. Data concluded that the south end of the pond had the worst degradation in terms of eutrophication, sewage contamination, and general pollution. Algal mats were found to contribute to excesses of nutrients. Future testing was recommended to detect pollution into North Mill Pond.

(1998) Triennial Re-Evaluation: Sanitary Survey of Hampton Harbor, DHHS The first official National Shellfish Sanitation Program survey for Hampton/Seabrook Harbor as conducted by The New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is reported. A shoreline field evaluation was performed by DHHS assisted by the Office of State Planning's Coastal Program and Great Bay Coast Watch volunteers. Both actual and potential sources of pollution were identified. Water quality and Hydrography tests were also performed. DHHS recommends a mixture of approved, seasonally approved, and prohibited classifications in the conclusion of the report involving (but not limited to) the Hampton Harbor clam flats as well as educational efforts for homeowners.

(1997) 1997 Environmental Projects in New Hampshire's Estuarine Wetlands, Nash, C This is a collection of abstracts of a variety of projects designed to protect, manage, and improve the water quality and natural resources of coastal New Hampshire from the NH Estuaries Environmental Network Conference on November 13, 1997. Projects summaries are separated into four categories: State and Federal Agencies and Environmental Professionals; Community Projects; Municipal Projects; and Academic Research.

(1997) An Investigation of Water Quality in New Hampshire Estuaries, Landry, N The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) identified and documented dry/wet weather pollution sources affecting portions of the Bellamy and Cocheco Rivers. Work focused on locating urban bacterial sources, though other pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, nutrients, etc.) were also included in the study. NHDES found that Bellamy River does not contribute significant bacterial loads during dry weather and that pollutants are entering it from urban portions of the watershed during wet weather. Conversely, NHDES found that bacteria contamination in the Cocheco River is high during dry weather, likely due to cross connections and deteriorating sewer pipes. More work was recommended for 1998 to identify and eliminate pollutant sources for Cocheco River in all weather conditions and for Bellamy River during wet conditions.

(1997) Analysis of Water Quality Data for New Hampshire Shellfishing Waters, Langan, R The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports analysis of water samples collected during routine state shellfish water sampling, intended to supplement standard bacterial sampling. Parameters included total suspended solids, percent organic content, chlorophyll a, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Results displayed that all levels tested were in expected ranges for the season. Location and timing changes were recommended for future studies to make the data more useful.

(1997) Assessment of Shellfish Populations in the Great Bay Estuary, Langan, R Scientists from the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) of the University of New Hampshire provided updated information on the condition of oyster and clam populations in the Great Bay Estuary. The scope of study was limited to major oyster beds and clam habitats classified for harvesting or where sanitation monitoring was already being done. Oysters were sampled from randomly placed quadrants of 1/8 square meters, and density and size were taken. Clams were counted by number of siphon holes in a series of quadrants the same size as oysters', and excavated to a depth of 20 cm. Total acreage of oyster beds raised to 66.5 acres from 50.2 in previous studies due to the size determination of the Nannie Island bed. The highest density of clams was found on the western shore of Little Bay near Adams Point. The JEL concluded that oyster populations in the Great Bay had recently declined, and speculated the decline to be due to sedimentation, the pathogen MSX, and removal of shell. Disease-resistant larvae from Rutgers University was recommended to try and restore areas thinned by MSX. Clam population was also relatively low, due to predation, light sets, and insufficient clay density for settlement of Mya. More research on suitable clam habitats in the area was recommended for the upcoming year.

(1997) Bellamy River and Little Bay Shoreline Survey: Fecal Coliform and pH Analyses, Jones, S The Jackson Estuarine Laboratory (JEL) at UNH reports water quality sampling and analysis conducted by volunteers assisting in Lower Little Bay and Bellamy River sanitary surveys. The goal was to determine if shellfish growing waters in these areas were safe for shellfishing. Fecal coliform and pH tests were conducted. 125 samples from 111 sites were analyzed. Fecal coliform levels ranged from undetected to 206,000 fc/100mL. The 95 pH measurements ranged from 6.2 to 8.5. Three had levels above 8.5, and these same samples showed an almost undetectable level of fecal coliform (< 2fc/100mL) which indicates unfavorable growing conditions for fecal bacteria. Resampling was needed to provide adequate documentation of fecal sources as a basis for pursuing remedial action, which JEL recommended keeping in mind in future such projects.

(1997) Cains Brook and Mill Creek Watershed Study, Town of Seabrook The Town of Seabrook in conjunction with the Seabrook Conservation Commission reports a project focused on locating, mapping, and sampling stormwater drainage outlets in the Cains Brook Watershed in an effort to identify sources of bacterial (and other) pollution. To begin, storm drains that emptied into the Cains Brook Watershed were located and mapped. Cains Brook property owners were notified and during construction, an educational video was created, Water quality was deemed to be generally good with conditions worsening after a rain event. The project was the initial phase of a long-term planned study of Cains Brook and other Seabrook watersheds. The Town hoped to create a watershed clean-up project based on the data collected and also to perform mud and sediment core sample testing for possible contaminants.

(1997) Design of a Walkway to Improve Salt Marsh Education on the Odiorne Farm Portion of the State Park, Civilworks Inc. Civilworks Inc. reports the Friends of Odiorne State Parks' planning and design of a handicapped-accessible walkway with viewing platforms. When constructed, the walkway would provide an "outdoor classroom" for marsh educational programs at the Seacoast Science Center. The design consisted of four platforms which could be added when deemed necessary, leading to a project that could be expanded as funds became available. The plans were feasible in that they enhanced a public education opportunity while preserving the salt marsh.

(1997) Development of a Shoreline Checklist for Volunteers Assisting in Sanitary Surveys, Burdick, D The Jackson Estuarine Lab at the University of New Hampshire designed a shoreline evaluation form, intended to provide a mechanism to objectively assess shoreline water and habitat conditions. The form was used by volunteers assisting in the sanitary survey of portions of Little Bay/Bellamy River. The survey was to be refined in areas of clarity, organization, and areas of relevance. It was recommended that the data collected from the new survey be inputted to the data base model used by the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) and examined at three levels: characterization using pictorial or analytical elements; trends characterizing degradation or risk factors; and incompleteness to the point of zero value. Finally, the data should be made available to those inside and outside of NHEP.

(1997) Edmond Avenue Wetland Restoration Project, City of Portsmouth The City of Portsmouth Public Works Department in conjunction with Swamp Inc. created a restoration project to ecologically and hydrologcially restore a severely degraded urban wetland in the city. This project involved developing a comprehensive long-term stormwater management plan for the Edmond Avenue fresh water wetland system, and implemented temporary steps to relieve wetland degradation from stormwater inputs to the wetland. Biofilters were designed to minimize sediment and pollution outflow to North Mill Pond and Piscataqua River. Portsmouth planned to use the project as a template for future such projects utilizing low ground pressure excavators to complete the activities started during the project.

(1997) Great Bay Oyster Harvest Survey, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game Department (NHFG) conducted a survey by mail in 1996 of 282 oyster licensees. These 282 made up 44% of the 643 initially sent out, a good return rate for this type of survey. NHFG concluded from the survey that most oyster harvesters live in southeastern New Hampshire near the coast. The majority of oyster harvesters have been practicing for under ten years. Nannie Island is the most popular harvesting spot. Two points in particular were noted that could help improve resources were education of the oyster drill (a predacious snail that can cause high mortality in oyster spat) and the disposal of empty shucked shell on shell beds as opposed to dry land. The NHFG planned to follow up the survey with an informative guide to controlling oyster drills and returning shells to oyster beds as well as to contact survey respondents for periodic updates of changes they notice.

(1997) Natural Resource Inventory, Evaluation, Mapping, and Outreach in Newmarket, NH, Town of Newmarket This project was designed to finish a wetland evaluation project in Newmarket with the town working in cooperation with the Strafford Regional Planning Commission (SRPC). Using the New Hampshire Method, natural resource maps were developed to make environmental information more accessible to town officials and citizens. The project resulted in wetlands maps with three different depictions, summaries, and color prints for each wetland. In addition, the SRPC made a series of GIS maps of Newmarket with different layers of natural resource information. The maps were mounted and displayed at the Conservation Commission and Town Council meetings. Several educational forums were planned to share the newly mapped information and it was recommended that the town review zoning, subdivision, and other planning tools to ensure adequate protection of available resources.

(1997) New Hampshire Estuaries Project Volunteer Shoreline Sampling & Habitat Survey, Meeker, S The Great Bay Watch (GBW) reports their volunteer involvement in sanitary surveys and shoreline habitat assessments of Lower Little Bay and the tidal portion of the Bellamy River. In addition to shoreline surveys, volunteers were trained to conduct rainfall characterization surveys. All of the volunteers who participated committed to returning again, and three more volunteered through the 1997 Great Bay Watcher Survey. GBW recommended continuing sanitary shoreline surveys along the Bellamy River and East Little Bay as well as rainfall characterizations in the Great Bay and Hampton Harbor.

(1997) NHEP Year One Outreach Activities, Chase, J This is a written plan for the NHEP's outreach efforts provided by the Seacoast Science Center. The strategy includes a list of potential activities and audiences to be targeted by NHEP outreach efforts, which are intended to increase participation in NHEP Management Plan development. Included in the project was hiring an outreach coordinator (Jim Chase), increasing public involvement (newsletter, slideshow, display board, school painting contest, and support for volunteers), and the State of the Estuaries report. Included in future tasks to be completed are a database of estuarine shoreland property owners, a second New Hampshire Estuaries Conference, enhancing media presence, and a NHEP website.

(1997) Public Outreach Education in the Cocheco River Watershed, SRPC The Strafford Regional Planning Commission (SRPC) reports various educational activities in the Cocheco River Watershed to foster the development of awareness about the watershed's environmental quality. In conjunction with the project, resource professionals surveyed the natural and man-made conditions of Cocheco River river by canoe to discover potentional educational opportunities and resource management problems. Awareness has increased and educational materials developed and demanded. SRPC recommendations included formation of a citizen coalition and a volunteer water quality monitoring program.

(1997) Reclamation of a Gravel Pit Located in the Fork of Confluence of the Branch River and Jones Brook, Lessard The Town of Milton in conjunction with the Strafford County Conservation District reports the protection of riparian buffers and wetlands along tributaries to the Salmon Falls River by correcting various shoreline erosion problems. The erosion had been caused by past mining activities on the site. The upper berm on the Branch River was critically eroded and repaired with a low dike paralleling the riverbank. Trees on the steep slopes were cut to prevent exposing raw soil and root balls should the wind knock them over, and downed trees were staked to catch organic material (thus providing nutrients and moisture to surrounding plants.) With the construction of the berm and reclamation of the gravel pit, erosion into the Branch River and Jones Brook was reduced to natural levels. The property was planned for an outdoor-passive educational and recreational site. Several community groups have expressed interest in planting, fishing, and camping in the area.

(1997) Recreational Soft-Shell Clam Harvest Survey, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish and Game Department (NHFG) quantified soft-shell clam harvest pressure in the Hampton Harbor estuary during the 1996-97 harvesting season. Number of harvesters was recorded and each was given a limit of ten quarts. NHFG concluded that shellfish harvest surveys should be resumed.

(1997) Regulation and Management of New Hampshire's Estuaries, NHFG This report presents a summary of the NHEP Base Programs Analysis Project, which was designed to inventory and evaluate the management/regulatory programs affecting the state's estuaries. It notes funding as a critical issue for the future.

(1997) Resource Protection Evaluation, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game set out to determine the degree of illegal harvesting and sale of shellfish in coastal New Hampshire, with an emphasis on the Hampton Harbor Estuary. Random surveillances of the following areas were implemented from January 1, 1997 to August 31, 1997: Common Island, Lockes Point, and Middle Ground. Any soft-shell clams harvested from the contaminated bed (Middle Ground) were to be intercepted immediately and any shell stocks involved would be seized through a court ordered search warrant. No illegal harvesting was observed on non-contaminated flats, but several harvesters were caught on Middle Ground. However, each had only a small quantity, suggesting personal use as opposed to selling to a market. Illegal harvesting was concluded to occur because of extended closures (due to red tide or bacteria) tend to overlap into high-demand time, making harvesters struggle to meet the demand. It was recommended that harvesters be connected to alternative sources during times of high demand to purchase clams.

(1997) Riverside Drive Restoration Project, City of Dover The City of Dover designed a project to correct the effects of severe stormwater erosion in a natural drainageway (off Riverside Drive) in close proximity to the Piscataqua River. A secondary goal of the project was to remove accumulated sediment that had built up in a tidal marsh along the River. The ravine created by erosion was severe (7-10 feet deep in some places.) Dover's City of Engineers Office prepared a design to stabilize the swale and remove the sediment from the marsh in 1995. Dover then applied for a Local Technical Assistance grant from NHEP, were approved, and began construction. The result was a halt on further erosion to the drainageway and sedimentation into the marsh. About a week after construction was finished, the new system held up exceptionally well to a heavy rain storm.

(1997) Testing of Great Bay Oysters for Two Protozoan Pathogens, NHFG The New Hampshire Fish & Game set out to monitor the presence of two pathogens known to be found in Great Bay oysters: MSX and Dermo. Oysters of 70mm or greater length were collected from a variety of areas in Great Bay twice during 1997: summer and fall. They were sent to Rutgers University, where tissue section histology was performed to test for MSX, and Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium incubation of rectal and mantle tissue was used to test for Dermo. It was found that both MSX and Dermo were widely distributed throughout Great Bay systems. The Piscataqua River area was most severely infected by the 1995 epizootic. Infections of Dermo were low in all areas except the Piscataqua River and Stugeon Bed. It was recommended that the testing be continued twice a year, that communication between all parties engaged in testing remain fluid, and moving of oyster beds was discouraged to prevent possible spread of either disease.






 

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